Lexicology 11

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1. 0079; In … the semantic similarity or difference of words is revealed by the possibility or impossibility of transforming them according to a prescribed model and following certain rules into a different form, called their transform.
2. 00111; In … each meaningful component stands for a separate notion.
3. 0011;  The example of … is: the prefix ex- means 'former' when added to human nouns: ex-filmstar, ex-president, ex-wife.
4. 0055; The process opposite to degradation is known as …
5. 001104;  shilly-shally 
6. 0018.  .....   expresses approval or dis­approval. E.g. magic, witchcraft and sorcery. 
7. 0017. .... is acquired by the word as a result of its frequent use in contexts corresponding to emotional situations or because the referent conceptualized and named in the denotative meaning is associated with emotions. For example, the verb beseech means 'to ask eagerly and also anxiously'. E. g.: He besought a favour of the fudge (Longman).
8. 0019; ...  is called also expressive, emphatic. E.g. magnificent, gorgeous, splendid, superb are used colloquially as terms of exaggeration.
9. 0016; When associations concern the situation in which the word is uttered, the social circumstances (formal, familiar, etc.), the social relationships between the interlocutors (polite, rough), the type and purpose of communication (learned, poetic, official, etc.), the connotation is … .
10. 0052; Meaning serving as basis for the derived ones is called …
11. 0068; The term …  is used to designate the method of merging parts of words (not morphemes) into one new word; the result is a blend, also known as a portmanteau word.
12. 0054;  The … of meaning is frequently brought about by the omission of a noun and the retention of an adjective in the sense which the whole phrase intended to express.
13. 00106; .... are words belonging to the same part of speech, containing identical stems and synonymical affixes, and yet not permitting free variation, not optional.
14. 0098; ... are words of the same sound but of different spelling and meaning.
15. 00115; .... is a newly coined word or phrase or a new meaning for an existing word, or a word borrowed from another lan­guage.
16. 0092; ... are elements that stand midway between roots and affixes.
17. 0021; Sometimes in an attempt to find motivation for a borrowed word the speakers change its form so as to give it a connection with some well-known word. These cases of mistaken motivation received the name … .
18. 0039; Bookish styles are classified into … .
19. 00119; The broadest binary division of functional styles is into …
20. 0074; A stem containing one or more affixes is … 
21. 0064; Words that are made up of elements derived from two or more dif­ferent languages are called…
22. 0077; If the analysis is limited to stating the number and type of mor­phemes that make up the word, it is referred to as …
23. 0012; ... are word-groups with a par­tially changed meaning. They are clearly motivated, that is, the meaning of the unit can be easily deduced from the meanings of its constituents.
24. 0034; Narrowing of meaning or ….. In the process of narrowing of meaning a word of wide meaning acquires a narrower, specialised sense in which it is applicable only to some of the objects it had previously denoted, or a word of wide usage is restricted in its application and comes to be used only in a special sense.
25. 0040; Colloquial styles are subdivided into … .
26. 001103; .... are twin forms consisting of one basic morpheme (usually the second), sometimes a pseudo-morpheme which is repeated in the other constituent with a different vowel. The typical changes are [ı] — [æ]: chit-chat ‘gossip’ (from chat ‘easy familiar talk’), dilly-dally ‘loiter’, knick-knack ‘small articles of ornament’, riff-raff ‘the mob’, shilly-shally ‘hesitate’, zigzag (borrowed from French), and [ı] — [o]: ding-dong (said of the sound of a bell), ping-pong ‘table-tennis’, singsong ‘monotonous voice’, tiptop ‘first-rate’.
27. 0047; Whereas the metaphor is an implied comparison, the … a direct comparison.   g.: The moon is like a silver coin.  It may be recognized easily by the presence of like or as, occasionally by the comparative degree with than and less frequently, usually in older poetry, by so.
28. 00100; ...  are words different in sound but most nearly alike or exactly the same in meaning.
29. 0031;  The meaning is ..… when the object is named and at the same time char­acterized through its similarity with another object.
30. 0065; Shortening of words in written speech results in … which are signs representing words and word-groups of high frequency of occurrence in various spheres of human activity.
31. 006; … provides a theoretical basis on which the vocabularies of different languages can be compared and described.
32. 005; … is defined as a semantically relevant relationship of partial difference between two partially similar words.
33. 0073; Two or more words identical in sound and spelling but different in meaning, distribution and (in many cases) origin are called …
34. 0023; ....   studies only such meanings that can be expressed, that is concepts bound by signs.
35. 0057; … tries to conceal unpleasantness under a seemingly pleasant exterior, i. e. to use a pleasant or innocuous term to describe a disagreeable fact.
36. 0036; Elevation of meaning or … Words often rise from humble beginnings to positions of greater importance.
37. 00124;  … is a word taken over from another language and modified in phonemic shape, spelling, paradigm or meaning according to the standards of the English language.
38. 0070; Words that have been shortened at the end are called …
39. 00116; When the causes of the word's disappearance are extra-linguistic, e.g. when the thing named is no longer used, its name becomes … .
40. 0044; By … is meant the transference of meaning on the basis of similarity. It gives vivacity and expressiveness to speech and is especially necessary when an accustomed term loses its force through familiarity. E.g.: a ray of hope, a shade of doubt, a flash of wit, the light of knowledge.
41. 0043; If, the indicative power belongs to the syntactic pattern and not to the words which make it up, the context is called … g. make means 'to cause' when followed by a complex object: I couldn't make him understand a word I said.
42. 0010; … discusses the origin of various words, their change and development.
43. 008; … deals with the vocabulary of a given language at a given stage of it development.
44. 00102;  .... are words conveying the same notion but differing in shades of meaning.
45. 00110; .... have been defined as word-groups conveying a single notion.
46. 0013; This type of motivation is based on the co-existence of direct and figurative meanings of the same word within the same synchronous system.
47. 0027; The conceptual content of a word is expressed in its … 
48. 0072; Words in which some syllables or sounds have been omitted from the middle are called …
49. 0022; The branch of linguistics concerned with the meaning of words and word equivalents is called … .
50. 0026; ....   is the common denominator of all the meanings of words belonging to a lexico-grammat­ical class of words, it is the feature according to which they are grouped together.

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