Lexicology 11

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1. 0098; ... are words of the same sound but of different spelling and meaning.
2. 001105; Rhyme combinations (Open end)
3. 0040; Colloquial styles are subdivided into … .
4. 0051; Meaning gone out of use is called …
5. 0016; When associations concern the situation in which the word is uttered, the social circumstances (formal, familiar, etc.), the social relationships between the interlocutors (polite, rough), the type and purpose of communication (learned, poetic, official, etc.), the connotation is … .
6. 0065; Shortening of words in written speech results in … which are signs representing words and word-groups of high frequency of occurrence in various spheres of human activity.
7. 0017. .... is acquired by the word as a result of its frequent use in contexts corresponding to emotional situations or because the referent conceptualized and named in the denotative meaning is associated with emotions. For example, the verb beseech means 'to ask eagerly and also anxiously'. E. g.: He besought a favour of the fudge (Longman).
8. 0094; In … different meanings of one and the same word are mutually dependent and proceed from the primary signification. It is the natural consequence of sense-shift undergone by words in different con­texts.
9. 103; .... are words differing in stylistic characteristics.
10. 0070; Words that have been shortened at the end are called …
11. 007; The basic unit forming the bulk of the vocabulary is the …
12. 001101; Actually it is a very mixed group containing usual free forms, onomatopoeic stems and pseudo-morphemes. Onomatopoeic repetition exists but it is not very extensive: hush-hush ‘secret’, murmur (a borrowing from French) pooh-pooh (to express contempt).
13. 0035; … It is the process whereby, for one reason or another, a word falls into disrepute. Words once respectable may become less respectable.
14. 0046;  … is the device in which the name of one thing is changed for that of another, to which it is related by association of ideas, as having close relationship to one another. E.g.: / am reading Pushkin (meaning Pushkin's works).
15. 0071; Words that have been shortened at the beginning are called …
16. 0062; .... may be regarded as the ultimate constituent element which remains after the removal of all functional and derivational affixes and does not admit any further analysis.
17. 0028;  Complex associations originating in habitual con­texts, verbal or situational, of which the speaker and the listener are aware give the word its … .
18. 0018.  .....   expresses approval or dis­approval. E.g. magic, witchcraft and sorcery. 
19. 0031;  The meaning is ..… when the object is named and at the same time char­acterized through its similarity with another object.
20. 0038; Stylistically coloured words are classified into … .
21. 008; … deals with the vocabulary of a given language at a given stage of it development.
22. 0082; The classification of compounds according to the structure of imme­diate constituents distinguishes: : … g.: chain-smoker. 
23. 0056; .... derives its effect from deliberate understatement.
24. 009; When there is a certain similarity between the sounds that make up the word and those referred to by the sense, the motivation is … 
25. 0097; .... are words identical in pronunciation and spell­ing.
26. 0029; All lexical and lexico-grammatical variants of a word taken together form its semantic structure or … .
27. 0012; ... are word-groups with a par­tially changed meaning. They are clearly motivated, that is, the meaning of the unit can be easily deduced from the meanings of its constituents.
28. 0063; .... is defined as a positional variant of a morpheme occurring in a specific environment and so characterised by complemen­tary distribution.
29. 0084; When a derivational or functional affix is stripped from the word what remains is a …
30. 00102;  .... are words conveying the same notion but differing in shades of meaning.
31. 001106; Rhyme combinations (Open end)
32. 00111; In … each meaningful component stands for a separate notion.
33. 0077; If the analysis is limited to stating the number and type of mor­phemes that make up the word, it is referred to as …
34. 00113; .... are word-groups with a completely changed meaning, that is, the meaning of the unit does not correspond to the meanings of its constituent parts. They are motivated units.
35. 0072; Words in which some syllables or sounds have been omitted from the middle are called …
36. 0073; Two or more words identical in sound and spelling but different in meaning, distribution and (in many cases) origin are called …
37. 0066; ... are formed by a simultaneous operation of shortening and compounding. They are made up of the initial sounds or syllables of the components of a word-group or a compound word usually of a terminological charac­ter.
38. 0059; According to the role they play in constructing words, morphemes are subdivided into ….
39. 0099; ... are words different in sound and in meaning but accidentally identical in spelling.
40. 0076;  … are roots capable of pro­ducing new words.
41. 0087; .... serve to supply the stem with components of lexical and lexico-grammatical meaning, and thus form different words.
42. 00121; .... is used in personal two-way every-day communication. A dialogue is assisted in its explicitness by the meaningful qualities of voice and gesture. The speaker has ample opportunity to know whether he is understood, the listener can always interrupt him and demand additional information, i.e. there is con­stant feedback.
43. 0034; Narrowing of meaning or ….. In the process of narrowing of meaning a word of wide meaning acquires a narrower, specialised sense in which it is applicable only to some of the objects it had previously denoted, or a word of wide usage is restricted in its application and comes to be used only in a special sense.
44. 0036; Elevation of meaning or … Words often rise from humble beginnings to positions of greater importance.
45. 00125; .... are words and expressions formed from the material already existing in the British lan­guage but according to patterns taken from another language, by way of literal morpheme-for-morpheme or word-for-word translation. E.g.: chain-smoker : : Germ Kettenraucher; wall newspaper 
46. 001; Lexicology is the part of linguistics dealing with the … of the language and the properties of words as the main units of language. 
47. 00105; In the process of speaking a word of more or less pleas­ant or at least inoffensive connotation becomes synonymous to one that is harsh, obscene, indelicate or otherwise unpleasant. As the "offensive" referents, for which these words stand, must still be alluded to, they are often described in a round-about way, by using substitutes called … .
48. 0085;  ....  serve to convey grammatical meaning.
49. 00101; .... is the most general term of its kind potentially containing the specific features rendered by all the other members of the synonymic group.
50. 0091; In … neither of the components dominates the other, both are structurally and semantically independent and constitute two structural and semantic centres as in secretary-stenographer, actor-manager, bittersweet, etc. The constituent stems in these compounds belong to the same part of speech and most often to the same semantic group.

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