PRONOUN, LESSON

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THE PRONOUN

Definition: The pronoun is a part of speech which is used to point out objects, their qualities or quantities without naming them.

GENERAL NOTION

Pronouns have very general, relative meaning. Thus, the indication of a person by means of a personal pronoun varies depending on the speaker, e.g., one and the same person may be denoted by I, you, he etc.: when a person speaks of himself, he (she) calls himself I; address­ing the listener, the speaker calls him you; speaking about somebody or something the speaker calls it as he, she, it.

In the same way possessive pronouns indicate relative possessiveness depending on the actual speaker, and one and the same thing possessed by a certain person may be referred to as my, his, her, etc., such as: my book, his book, her book, etc.

Being substitutes of other parts of speech, pronouns are used fre­quently and form a considerable part of any text or conversation; though as a class of words pronouns are not numerous.

There are several features that pronouns have in common, which distinguish them from other parts of speech. These features are:

They don’t have determiners.

They are often used in the objective case.

Most of them have person distinctions.

They often have gender contrast.

Singular and plural forms are not morphologically marked.

According to their meaning and syntactical functions pronouns are traditionally divided into noun-pronouns and adjective-pronouns.

Noun pronouns substitute for nouns: their syntactical functions are similar to those of nouns, such as:

Tom studies English. He studies English.

Tom met Mary. He met her.

Adjective pronouns substitute for adjectives; their syntactical functions are similar to those of adjectives, such as: a red pencil, my pencil, that pencil, etc.

Most pronouns can be used both as noun-pronouns and adjective- pronouns, such as:

Noun pronouns           Adjective pronouns

Some are present          Some students are present

That is correct             That sentence is correct

Pronouns in contemporary English differ in their morphological structure and lexical meaning. Accordingly, they are classified on two principles:

according to their morphological structure;

according to their meanmg.

 

CLASSIFICATION OF PRONOUNS ACCORDING TO THEIR MORPHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE

According to their morphological structure English pronouns are divided into the following groups: Simple pronouns; Compound pronouns; Composite pronouns.

 

  1. Simple Pronouns

Definition: Pronouns consisting of only one word are called simple pronouns, such as:

I,  you, he, she, we, they, this, that, some, any, no, none, such, etc.

  1. Compound Pronouns Definition:

Pronouns consisting of two roots are called compound pronouns, such as: somebody, someone, anything, nobody everybody everything, etc.

  1. Composite Pronouns Definition:

Pronouns consisting of two roots used distantly are called com­posite pronouns, such as: one another, no one, each other.

CLASSIFICATION OF PRONOUNS ACCORDING TO THEIR MEANING

According to their meaning the pronouns in contemporary English are divided into the following groups:

 

  1. Personal Pronouns;
  2. Pos­sessive Pronouns;
  3. Reflexive Pronouns;
  4. Reciprocal Pronouns;
  5. Demonstrative Pronouns;
  6. Interrogative Pronouns;
  7. Relative Pronouns;
  8. Conjunctive Pronouns;
  9. Defining Pronouns;
  10. In­definite Pronouns;
  11. Negative Pronouns.

 

 

  1. PERSONAL PRONOUNS DEFINITION:

Pronouns which are used to denote persons or non-persons from the point of view of their relation to the speaker without naming them are called personal pronouns.

Personal pronouns in contemporary English are the following:

I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they.

 

Personal pronouns are used only as noun-pronouns.

Depending on the context and situation personal pronouns may be divided into three groups:

  1. pronouns denoting concrete persons: I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they, pronouns denoting indefinite persons: you, we, they, one. a pronoun denoting non-person: it.
  2. Personal pronouns belonging to the first group have the categories of number and case.
  3. The pronouns of the third person discriminate gen­der: (a) masculine (he); (b) feminine (she); (c) neuter (it). But in the third person plural the form they serve for all three genders. Examples:
  4. The hoy was very clever. He was a friend of my brother’s.
  5. The woman came up to me. She was my friend’s mother.
  6. I bought an interesting It was published ten years ago. The grammatical properties of the personal pronouns can be seen in the following table.

Number                           Singular        Plural

 

Number Singular Plural
             Case

Person

Nominative Case Objective Case Nominative Case Objective Case
I person

 

I

 

Me

 

We

 

Us

 

II person You You You You
III person Masculine –he

Feminine –she

Neuter – it

Him

Her

It

They them

 

I and we are the pronouns of the first person, i.e. a person (or per­sons) who speaks (speak); you is the pronoun of the second person, i.e. a person (persons) spoken to. The plural and the singular forms of you are differentiated only in the text.

Examples:

Are you a teacher, John?

Are you teachers, my friends?

He, she, it and they are the pronouns of the third person, i.e. a person (persons) or a thing (things) spoken about.

We distinguish (a) singular and (b) plural personal pronouns, such as:

  1. I, he, she, it;
  2. we, you, they

Personal pronouns have two cases:

  1. the nominative case;
  2. the objective case.

There is no inflexion for the objective case of personal pronouns, such as: I me, we – us, she – her present suppletive forms; in he – him, they – them, there is a vowel interchange and the inflexion -m; it – it, you – you have homonymous forms for both cases.

 

The nominative and the objective cases of you and it are differ­entiated by their position in the sentence.

Examples:

You meet me. I meet you.     The door opened.       It opened.

I opened the door.    I opened it.

As noun-pronouns personal pronouns substitute for nouns. Their syntactical functions are similar to those of nouns. They can be used in the functions of (a) a subject, (b) a predicative and (c) an object (direct, indirect prepositional).

 

Examples:

  1. He walked down the street. She watched him in silence.

They went into his bedroom.

  1. Who is there? It’s It’s I
  2. The man met me in the park (direct object). The boy gave her some redflowers (indirect object). We don ’/ know any­thing about him (prepositional object).

Note: When personal pronouns are used as a predicative, the nominative case is con­sidered to be very formal. But the use of the objective case is preferred in spoken English.

The function of an adverbial modifier is possible but not common. It is found with a very limited number of prepositions in sentences like the following:

He stood in front of us (adv. mod. of place).

He reached there before me (adv. mod. of time).

Pronouns belonging to the second group denote indefinite persons. They have a highly general meaning, i.e. with mdefinite reference. These are the pronouns you, we, they and one.

The pronouns (a) we, (b) you, (c) they are often used with general or indefinite force.

Examples:

  1. We want peace and freedom.
  2. You ought to be very careful while crossing the street.
  3. They say that he is going to leave the city.

The pronoun we is often used by authors and speakers instead of L. It is the so-called editorial we.

Example:

We consider (I consider) that there are two case forms in ME. The pronoun one is always used as a noun-pronoun. One indicates a person in the most general sense. In other words, one refers to nobody in particular.

 

Examples:

One must do one’s duty. One must be careful while driving a car.

The pronoun one may be used in the possessive case.

Examples:

It is very easy to lose one’s way in the thick forest. His sin­cerity excited one’s sympathy.

 

When used as a prop-word, one is applied to both things and per­sons and may be used in the plural.

Examples:

The last one (the last hook) is very interesting. My little ones (my little children) are playing in the yard. I prefer red roses to white ones (roses).

 

The prop-word one can be preceded by the article of definiteness.

The one (the hoy) you wanted to see is in the next room.

 

There are cases when the pronoun it is not used for concrete things, abstract notions and animals.

The pronoun it is very often used as a formal subject in impersonal statements about (a) weather conditions, (b) time, (c) distance and (d) all kinds of measurements.

Examples:

  1. It often rams in autumn.
  2. It is five minutes past ten.
  3. It is ten miles to the nearest village.
  4. It is three feet deep here.

The pronoun it as a subject is also found in sentences in which the predicate is modified by an infinitive phrase (a), or an -ing form phrase (b), or a clause (c). We usually find nominal predicates in this kind of sentences:

Examples:

  1. It is pleasant to walk in the open air. It is interesting to read funny stories.
  2. It is not easy playing in such weather. It is useless helping him. He is not a good man.
  3. It is necessary that they should go there. It was evident that they didn’t know him.

The formal it may be used not only as the subject of the sentence but also as the object followed by an adjective or a noun which is mod­ified by (a) an infinitive phrase, (b) an -ing-form phrase or (c) a clause.

Examples:

  1. He found it difficult to meet her.
  2. She thought it no use staying with him.
  3. She thought it strange that he hadn’t written to her.

The pronoun it is also used in the so-called emphatic construc­tions, i.e. a special sentence pattern that serves to emphasize some word or phrase in the sentence.

Examples:

It was he who saved my son. It was my words that made him angry.

 

  1. POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS

Definition:

Pronouns denoting possessiveness are called possessive pronouns.

Unlike Azerbaijani in contemporary English there exists a sepa­rate group of possessive pronouns. They are the following:

my, your, his, her, its, our, your, their.

According to their combinability and syntactic function possessive pronouns are divided into two groups: conjoint forms; absolute forms.

 

1) Conjoint Forms of Possessive Pronouns

In contemporary English the conjoint forms of possessive pro­nouns are the following:

my, your, his, her, its, our, your, their.

Possessive pronouns like personal pronouns have the categories of person, number, and gender in the third person singular. This can be seen in the following table.

 

  I person         II person                      III person
masculine feminine neuter
Singular My Your His Her Its
Plural Our Your Their

           

As a rule, the conjoint forms of possessive pronouns are used as adjective-pronouns in the function of an attribute in (a) phrases and (b) sentences.

Examples:

  1. Our country, his name, her beauty, their advice.
  2. She took his arm and led him to the door. I shall miss my She slipped her arm through his and forced a smile to her lips. The bus picked its way through District Six and dropped him at the top end.

The conjoint form is much more often used before nouns denoting parts of the body, clothes and various other personal belongings. Examples:

He took his handkerchief and put it into his pocket.

She clapped her hand on his arm. He held out his hand.

Note: In such cases possessive pronouns are not translated into Azerbaijani. If a thing or a part of body belongs not to the doer but to the person who is the object of an action, the article of definiteness is used.

Examples:

The man hit the child in the face. He kissed her on the lip.

He took her by the arm.

2) Absolute Forms of Possessive Pronouns

In contemporary English the absolute forms of possessive pro­nouns are the following:

mine, yours, his, hers, ours, yours, theirs.

Absolute forms like conjoint forms have the categories of person, number, and gender in the third person singular. This can be seen in the following table.

 

  I person         II person                      III person
      masculine feminine neuter
Singular Mine Yours His Hers
Plural Ours Yours Theirs

 

 

 

As can be seen from the given table, there is no absolute form cor­responding to the personal pronoun it.

The absolute forms of possessive pronouns are used as noun-pro­nouns. They are used in the functions of (a) a subject, (b) a predica­tive, and (c) an object.

Examples:

  1. “Yours must be a wonderful existence’’, said the prince. Ours is a real feeling.
  2. “The hat is yours ”, said mother. The land is rIhe dog is hers.
  3. You have no book. I can give you They found my dog but couldn’t find his. You may take theirs.

The absolute forms of possessive pronouns can also be used in the function of an attribute when they are preceded by the preposition of.

Examples:

He is a very old friend of mine. It is no business of yours.

I don’t like that silly joke of his.

Note: A frend of mine = one of my friends.

Absolute forms are used anaphorically, i.e. their use depends on the previous context or situation.

 

  1. Reflexive Pronouns

Definition: Pronouns which indicate identity between the persons or non-per­sons denoted by the subject of the sentence are called reflexive pro­nouns.

  1. Reflexive pronouns serve to show that the action performed by the person which is indicated by the subject of the sentence passes back again to the same person. In other words, the subject of the sentence and its object indicate the same person.
  2. Reflexive pronouns are formed by adding -self (selves) to posses­sive pronouns in the first and second persons and to the objective case of personal pronouns in the third person.
  3. Reflexive pronouns are the following: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves.

Like personal and possessive pronouns reflexive pronouns have the categories of number, person and gender in the third person singular. This can be seen in the following table.

 

  I person         II person                      III person
masculine feminine neuter
Singular Myself Yourself Himself Herself Itself
Plural Ourselves Yourselves Themselves

 

There is one more reflexive pronoun which is formed from the pronoun one – oneself. Unlike other reflexive pronouns, oneself has no person, number and gender distinctions.

As a rule, reflexive pronouns are used as noun-pronouns. They are mainly used as a direct object.

Examples:

His mother pulled herself together and smiled.

Don’t upset yourself.

The rabbit tore itself free.

One must not deceive one­self.

I wanted to find out if you could behave yourself better.

 He raised himself till be sat erect.

 

Reflexive pronouns can also be used in the function of an indirect object.

Examples:

She poured herself out a glass of hot tea.

He bought himself a new car.

 

Reflexive pronouns are used as a prepositional object when they are preceded by a preposition.

Examples:

1 also talk to myself sometimes.

She was surprised at herself for accepting the equality.

“You can smile, my son, and say to yourself.

The old man is dreaming in words again’’.

 At last he came to himself.

I have bought a new car for myself.

 

 Reflexive pronouns are also used as (a) a predicative, (b) an advcrbial modifier and (c) an attribute

Examples:

  1. She was not quite The woman was herself again.
  2. He had to live by himself on the other side of the farm. She can do it by herself. Colored people never talk about it among themselves.
  3. While looking through the books the other day, I found a picture of myself. She showed me a dress of herself

 

Reflexive pronouns can also perform the function of an apposi­tion in the sentence. In this case they are used for the sake of emphasis. They can be placed either immediately (a) after their head word or (b) at the end of the sentence.

Examples:

  1. You yourself told me about that. He himself did the trans­lation. She herself met the guests.
  2. I didn ‘I even understand the difference myself . Now he must find it

 

 

 

  1. Reciprocal Pronouns

Definition:

Pronouns which denote mutual relations between two or more per­sons are called reciprocal pronouns.

There are two reciprocal pronouns in contemporary English. Both of them are composite pronouns: each other, one another.

Reciprocal pronouns are used to show that something is done mu­tually. (a) Each other generally implies only two persons, (b) one an­other more than two persons.

Examples:

  1. You and I can talk to each other and understand each other. Lanny and Sarie stood looking at each other. (Abra­hams) The two men circled each other In the light of the lamp the two girls studied each other closely
  2. They (more than two persons) often quarreled with one an­other. The moon was high and all the children could see one another by moonlight. Still they worked on, whisper­ing to one another.

But this distinction is not always strictly observed, both each other and one another can be used when speaking of two persons.

Examples:

The two families supported one another.

John and Mary like each other (one another).

Reciprocal pronouns are used as noun-pronouns. They have only one grammatical category – the category of case. This can be seen in the following examples.

 

Common case Genitive case
each other

one another

each other’s

one another’s

 

Syntactical functions of reciprocal pronouns depend on their case forms. Common case forms are used as (a) objects (direct, indirect, prepositional), genitive case forms are used as (b) an attribute. Examples:

  • The two friends liked each other. They gave one another their addresses. They held hands and looked at each other in silence.
  • We didn’t understand each other’s They were glad to see one another’s parents.

The subject of the sentence in which the reciprocal pronouns are used is always in the plural.

Examples:

They saw each other in the darkness.

The students helped one another.

 

  1. Demonstrative Pronouns

Definition:

Pronouns which point out an object are called demonstrative pro­nouns.

There are four demonstrative pronouns in English. They are the following: this, that, such, same.

  1. The demonstrative pronouns this, that.

The pronouns this and that have the category of number: this (bu) – these (bunlar); that (o) – those (onlar).

Unlike Azerbaijani demonstrative pronouns o, bu, the demonstra­tive pronouns this (these), that (those) agree in number with the nouns they modify:

this dog – bu it; these dogs – bu itr

that dogo it; those dogs – o itlər

The pronoun this (these) refers to what is near in space and time (a), but the pronoun that (those) usually points to something relatively remote in space and time (b).

 

Examples:

  • This was his last cup of tea at Fatty’s. (Abrahams) This is the end of the story. This man in front of him had to dominate him.
  • That was something he could not make her understand. That cluster of houses was home. That was your son. Those are foolish ones.

The pronoun that (those) may be used instead of a noun already mentioned.

Examples:

I entered by the door opposite to that opening into the garden.

I wanted to find out if the garden was the same as that I had seen years before.

 

In some cases this (these) may refer to what is to follow (a), that (those) to what precedes (b).

Examples:

  1. I know She has already left the city.
  2. Her things had been stolen. That made her angry.

 

The pronouns this (these) and that (those) are often used with nouns indicating time.

Examples:

This year they are going abroad.

It happened that morning.

This year is a Presidential election one.

In those days people were not so rich.

 

The demonstrative pronoun such.

Such means of this or that kind. Such is followed by the article of mdefmiteness before singular countable nouns. Such is never used with the article of definiteness.

Examples:

It was such an interesting book. She used to read to me such a funny story.

Like other demonstrative pronouns, such is generally used anaphorically (a). It can also be used with anticipatory force (b).

Examples:

  1. He was a silent clever boy. Such boys usually succeed. Her hat was very nice. She used to wear such
  2. Such was the answer. “I shall never forget him “.

 

The meaning of such is often completed by a clause introduced by that (a) or a phrase introduced by as (b).

Examples:

  1. We had such a busy day that we couldn’t even ring him up.
  2. I have never seen such a handsome man as Tom’s father.

 

The demonstrative pronoun (the) same.

 

(The) same means identical. It is always preceded by the article of definiteness.

Examples:

They were staying at the same hotel.

He said the same thing two or three times.

 

The meaning of same is often completed by a clause introduced by (a) that or (b) as.

 

Examples:

  1. She asked the same question that I disliked.
  2. He met his friend in the same place as I did.

 

Demonstrative pronouns, as noun-pronouns, are used in the func­tions of (a) a subject, (b) a predicative, (c) an object, but as adjec­tive-pronouns they are used as (d) an attribute.

Examples:

  1. That was good. This was the first chance for him. Such was his decision. The same is said every day.
  2. Your mark is Your problem is that. Her desire was such. The answer was the same.
  3. Compare these books with those on the shelf. “You must do the same ”, he said. / have never heard of Nobody knew who had done this to Sam.
  4. What do you want to do to these people? 1 don’t remember such a name. We heard the same answer again.

 

  1. Interrogative Pronouns

Definition:

Pronouns which are used to form special questions are called in­terrogative pronouns.

The interrogative pronouns are the following: who, whom, whose, what, which.

Interrogative pronouns indicate persons, non-persons or their properties as unknown to the speaker. They are used in inquiry.

Of interrogative pronouns only the pronoun who has the category of case, like personal pronouns. Who has two case forms: the nomina­tive case: who; the objective case: whom.

 

The interrogative pronoun who.

Who asks about persons. It doesn’t distinguish gender or number. Who is mainly used when the question is put to the subject of the sen­tence.

Examples:

Who looked at him and nodded?

Who smiled and held out his hand?

 

Who is usually followed by a singular verb.

Examples:

Who has done it?

Who is in the next room?

Who is to go there?

 

Who may also take the predicate-verb in the plural if it has a plural reference.

Examples:

-Who are in the room?                           -Tom and John.

-Who are to join us?                               -Tom and John

Who may be used as a predicative. In such cases the link verb agrees with the subject in number.

Examples:

Who is he?        Who are you?       Who were those people?

Whom is used when the question is put to the object of the sen­tence. It may function as (a) a direct object, as (b) an indirect object and as (c) a prepositional object.

Examples:

  1. Whom did you see there? Whom did she meet at the party?
  2. Whom did she give the key?
  3. Whom does the old man live with?

Whom is generally used in writing. In conversation whom is usu­ally replaced by who.

Examples:

Who did you meet?

Who has he invited to the party?

When who is used as a prepositional object, the preposition is placed at the end of the sentence.

Examples:

Who did you give the hook to?

Who has the letter been written by?

The interrogative pronoun whose.

Whose is a possessive interrogative pronoun. It is used as an ad­jective-pronoun mostly in the function of an attribute (a), though sometimes whose is also used as a predicative (b).

Examples:

Whose cases did he pick up?

Whose is the land going to be?

The interrogative pronoun what.

What refers to things. It is used as a noun-pronoun and as an ad­jective pronoun. As a noun-pronoun it is used in the functions of (a) a subject, (b) an object, and as (c) a predicative. As an adjective-pro­noun it is used as (d) an attribute.

Examples:

  1. What has happened to him?
  2. What did you see in the park? What did they speak about?
  3. What is your friend’s name?
  4. What film did you like most of all?

When what is used as a prepositional object, the preposition is usually placed at the end of the sentence.

Example: What are you laughing at?

 

When what is used as a subject, it is usually followed by a singular verb.

Examples: What is in the box? What is there on the table?

 

When what is used in the function of a predicative, the link verb usually agrees with the subject in number.

Examples: What is it? What are their names?

 

What may also refer to persons when it inquires about occupa­tion.

Examples: What is she? What is your friend?

 

As an adjective-pronoun what refers to both persons (a) and things (b).

Examples:

  1. What man saved the child?
  2. What hooks have been translated into English lately?

 

The interrogative pronoun “which”.

Which implies choice among a certain number of (a) persons or  (b) things.

Examples:

  1. Which man is her father, this or that?
  2. Which would you like, tea or coffee?

Which is often followed by an of phrase.

Examples:

Which of them lives in the country ?

Which of the flowers would you like?

Which of us can help the old man?

Compare the use of what and which in the following sentences:

What car have you got?

Which car is yours?

What examination did you pass?

Which of them was difficult?

 

Which is used in the functions of (a) a subject, (b) a predicative, (c) an object, and (d) an attribute.

Examples:

  1. Which of them left the room first?
  2. Which of the girls is her sister?
  3. Which do you like best, apples or peaches?
  4. Which dog is yours?

Special attention should be paid to the use of who, what, which when these three pronouns are used as predicatives and refer to persons, there is a great difference between them as in the following sentences.

Who inquires about a person’s name or parentage of a person, as in:

Who is she? – She is Mary.

She is my sister.

What inquires about the occupation or profession of a person.

What is she?She is a teacher.

 

Which inquires about particular person as singled out of a certain group, as in:

Which is his brother?The one by the fire.

 

The interrogative pronouns who, what and which may be made emphatic by adding ever. Depending on the situation, questions intro­duced by the emphatic forms m -ever express different emotions, such as surprise, anger, despair, indignation, etc. The use of the form in- ever is distinctly colloquial. They are used in the functions of (a) a subject, (b) a predicative and (c) an object.

Examples:

  1. Whoever has been here?
  2. Whichever is it?
  3. Whatever are you going to do?
  4. 7. RELATIVE PRONOUNS

Definition:

Pronouns which are used to introduce attributive clauses are called relative pronouns.

In contemporary English the subclass of relative pronouns com­prise the following items: who, whose, which, that, as.

Relative pronouns perform two functions in the sentence: they connect the subordinate clause to the principal one; they all have an independent syntactic function in the subordmate clause.

E.g.: In the sentence  < The book which I am reading is very inte­resting.>  the relative pronoun which connects the attribute clause with the principal one, and at the same time which is the object of the at tributive clause.

Generally relative pronouns serve to introduce attribute clauses. The word they refer is called the antecedent. It may be (a) a noun, or (b) a pronoun.    ^

Examples:

  1. The boy who is answering questions is very talented.
  2. Those who are afraid of difficulties must stay at home.

 

 

  1. The relative pronoun

Who is used in the reference to human beings and occasionally to the animals (usually when the animal is referred to as he or she). In this case who has the function of the subject. The predicate verb agrees in number and person with its antecedent.

Examples:

The boy who is running is Tom.

 The boys who are running are Tom and Sam.

Rover, who is a good dog, never lets a stranger into the house.

 

The objective case form whom has the function of an object in the attributive clause.

Examples:

The boy whom you saw yesterday is my brother.

The man whom he met is a talented painter.

 

The objective case form whom is considered very formal. In spo­ken English whom is replaced by who (a), and it is still common to omit the relative pronoun altogether (b).

Examples:

  1. The man who I saw is called Sam.
  2. The man I saw is called Sam.

 

When whom is used as a prepositional object, the preposition may be placed either (a) before whom or (b) after the predicate verb.

Examples:

  1. This is the student about whom l told you.
  2. This is the student whom l told you

 

  1. The relative pronoun

Whose is mainly used for (a)people, (b) animals, and (c) things. Examples:

  1. The woman whose sister lives in London is Mrs. Smith.
  2. She has a dog whose name is Spot.
  3. There are a lot of newspapers whose pages are filled with news of sports.

 

  1. The relative pronoun which.

Which is used for things and animals and has the functions of (a) a subject, (b) an object, and (c) an adverbial modifier.

Attributive clauses with who-subject, the predicate-verb in at­tributive clauses the subject agrees in number with its antecedent. Examples:

The book which is on the table is very interesting.

The books which are on the shelves are hers.

The house which you saw in the village is my brother’s.

Here is the letter which I told you about.

I met him in the room in which Strickland lived.

 

  1. The relative pronoun that.

That is used of both persons and things, singular and plural and has the functions of (a) the subject, (b) the object, and (c) the adverbial modifier.

When that is used in the function of the subject, the predi­cate-verb agrees in number with its antecedent.

Examples:

  1. a) He looked at the guests that were standing by the wall. She took the book that was on the shelf.
  2. b) It is the best picture that 1 have ever seen. This is the story that I spoke
  3. c) The house that you live in was built ten years ago.

 

Note: 1. That never has a preposition placed before it. The preposition is put at the end of the attributive clause.

Example: The man that you are talking about has left this message.

  1. Only that (not which, who or whom) is used in the following cases:
  2. a) when the antecedent is modified by (a) adjectives in the superlative degree, by (b) ordinal numerals, by (c) the pronouns all, any or by (d) the adjective only, as well as by (e) first or last

Examples:

  1. She was the prettiest girl that I had ever seen.
  2. He was the first man that had seen us.
  3. He has got all that he needs.
  4. She was the only woman there that can be trusted.
  5. It was the last time that he met me.
  6. a) after most indefinite pronouns:

Examples:

He told me everything that he knew. There is not much that can be done.

  1. c) after the noun modified by same:

Example:

She showed me the same picture that I had seen several times.

  1. d) when the antecedent is both a person and a thing:

Example:

He talked of the people and the places that he had visited.

 

  1. CONJUNCTIVE PRONOUNS.

Definition: Pronouns which are used to introduce subject, predicative and object clauses are called conjunctive pronouns.

Unlike Azerbaijani, in contemporary English there exists a sepa­rate group of conjunctive pronouns. They are the following: who, whose, what, which.

Conjunctive pronouns are used to connect subordinate clauses with the principal clause. They perform two functions: they connect the subordinate clause with the principal one, they have an independent syntactic function in the subordinate clause.

E.g.: In the sentence I don’t know who has taken my book the con­junctive pronoun who connects the object clause with the principal one, and at the same time who is the subject of the subordinate object clause.

In contemporary English conjunctive pronouns are used to connect (a) subject, (b) predicative, and (c) object clauses with the principal clause.

Examples:

  1. What / said is true. Who went there is not clear. Which book he has taken is not interesting for me.
  2. That is what I tried to prove. That wasn’t what I came to see you about. The problem is which of you will do that.
  3. She wondered what he was doing then. Tell me who did it. He couldn 1 even remember what she looked like.

In the subordinate clause conjunctive pronouns are used as (a) subject, (b) object, and (c) attribute.

Examples:

  1. I don’t remember who took my book yesterday.
  2. She couldn i hear what the old woman said.
  3. I don’t know which book he will choose.

 

  1. DEFINING PRONOUNS

Definition:

Pronouns which are used to indicate a group of persons or things are called defining pronouns.

In contemporary English the defining pronouns are the following:

all, each, every, everything, everyone, everybody, either, other, another.

 

  1. 1. The defining pronoun

All has a generalizing force. It shows a group of more than two objects. All is both (a) a noun-pronoun, and (b) an adjective-pronoun.

Examples:

  1. All were present at the meeting.
  2. All the guests were around the table.

As a noun-pronoun all is used in the functions of (a) the subject, (b) the predicative, and (c) the object, as an adjective-pronoun it is used as (d) the attribute, and as (e) an apposition.

Examples:

  1. All were in blue uniforms.
  2. It was all I could say. That is
  3. We know all about it.
  4. All the way they talked about that incident.
  5. They all went away.

All used as a noun-pronoun standing for persons is followed by a plural verb (a), when all refers to things (b) and abstract notions (c) it takes a singular verb.

Examples:

  1. All are present at the meeting.
  2. All was
  3. She made a few suggestions. All was

 

When all is used as an adjective-pronoun, the verb may be (a) sin­gular or (b)plural depending on the noun modified by all.

Examples:

  1. All the money has been spent.
  2. All the rooms have been occupied.

 

There are some peculiarities in the use of all, such as:

  • when all is followed by a noun, there is no preposition between them.

Examples:

All the people heard it. All the boys were glad to see one an­other.

  • when all is followed by a personal pronoun, the preposition of must be used.

Examples:

All of them were ready to help us. All of us like to join him.

 

  1. The defining pronoun each.

Each refers to all the members of the group of persons, things or notions mentioned before. As an adjective-pronoun each is used with a singular countable noun.

Examples:

They were in the yard.

Each was ready to run away.

Each stu­dent was asked by the teacher.

As a noun-pronoun each is used in the functions of (a) the subject, (b) the object, as an adjective-pronoun – (c) the attribute.

Examples:

  1. Each of the cats has its own place. The two boys entered. Each was carrying a suit-case.
  2. She gave an apple to
  3. There were green trees on each side of the river.

Each as an adjective-pronoun is also a synonym of every, but there is some difference m meaning between them: each has an indi­vidualizing meaning and can be used as both a noun-pronoun and an adjective pronoun. Every has a generalizing meamng. It can only be used as an adjective-pronoun. They are both followed by a singular verb.

Examples:

Every apple was wrapped in paper. Each student is eager to pass his examination.

As a result of its specific meaning, each may be followed by an of phrase, which is not possible in the case of every.

Examples:

Each of them knew about that incident. Each of these gram­mar rules must be revised.

 

3.Defining pronoun – every

Every is used only as an adjective-pronoun. It modifies singular countable nouns when there are more than two objects of the same de­scription.

Examples:

Every man must do his duty.  She had every reason to believe

that he was right.  He visited his old friend every day.

 

Every as an adjective-pronoun is only used as an attribute.

Examples:

Every house has its own form.

They met there every morning.

 

Every is a synonym of all when the latter is used attributively. The use of every is, however, more restricted than that of all because it can­ not be used with uncountable nouns.

With countable nouns the use of every and all appears to be par­allel.

Compare:

The storm broke all the trees. The storm broke every tree.

 

  1. The defining pronouns – everybody and

These pronouns are compound and synonymous words. They can substitute each other.

Examples:

Everybody was glad to see that man.

Everyone was glad to see that man.

 

But still there is a slight difference in meaning between them, everybody refers to persons collectively, whereas everyone refers to individuals. That’s why only everyone can be followed by an of phrase.

E.g.: Everyone of us was aware of that.

Everybody and everyone have two case forms:

common case: everybody, everyone;

genitive case: everybody’s, everyone’s.

 

 

 

The common case of these pronouns is used in the functions of (a) the subject and (b) the object. When everybody and everyone are used as a subject, the predicate verb is in the singular.

Examples:

  1. Everybody was Everyone in the group was ready to answer.
  2. She believes lie greeted everyone in the yard.

Everybody and everyone may function as a prepositional object. In this case they are used with a preposition.

Examples:

He spoke to everybody in such a manner. She knows every­thing about everyone in the group.

 

The genitive case of these pronouns is used in function of an at­tribute.

Examples:

Everybody’s children play in this park. Everyone’s composi­tion has been checked up.

 

  1. The defining pronoun – everything.

Everything is a compound pronoun. If denotes a group of more than three objects treated as a whole. It is a noun-pronoun with non­personal reference. It may function as (a) a subject, (b) a predicative, (c) an object.

When everything is used as a subject, the predicate verb is in the singular.

Examples:

  1. Everything goes wrong in this house. Everything is all right.
  2. She was everything to him.
  3. One can’t have everything at the same time.

 

  1. The defining pronoun – both.

Both is plural in meaning. It points out (a) two persons, (b) things or (c) notions mentioned before.

Examples:

  1. Both were at the party.
  2. Both doors were open.
  3. We could hardly see both

Both is never used in negative sentences, the idea of negative du­ality being expressed by neither.

 

Compare:       

 

Both were present.

Both of them came.

They both spoke to me.

Both the boys went.

I remember both.

He knew both of us.

You saw them both.

Neither of them spoke to me.

Neither of them came.

Neithe of them spoke to me.

Neither of the boys came.

1 remember neither.

He knew neither of us.

 You saw neither of them.

 

Both is used as noun-pronoun and as an adjective pronoun. As a noun-pronoun both functions as (a) the subject, (b) the object, as an adjective-pronoun both functions as (c) the attribute.

Examples:

  1. Both want to help you. Both were eager to leave us.
  2. These are nice things. 1 like
  3. Both books were published two years ago.

Both sometimes functions as an apposition. In this case both is gen­erally used with the pronouns we, you, they functioning as a subject.

Examples: We both helped him to finish the work. You both are afraid of difficulties. They both agreed to join us.

 

Appositive both can also occur with the same pronouns (we, you, they) functioning as an object.

Examples:

1 found them both in the yard. I’ll give you both my new ad­dress.

The appositive both is synonymous with the following of phrases: we both = both of us; you both = both of you.

Compare:

We both went there = Both of us went there.

They both were ill = Both of them were ill.

 

  1. The defining pronoun

Either points out two persons or things mentioned before. Examples:

Which flower would you like? – Either will do.

 

Either has two meanings:

1) One or the other of two (but not both).

Examples:

Either of these books is interesting. You can take either hat. I don’t mind which.

2) Both.

Examples:

There was snow on either side = There was snow on both sides. There were green trees on either bank of the river = There were green trees on both sides of the river.

 

Either as a noun-pronoun functions as (a) a subject, (b) an ob­ject, as an adjective-pronoun – (c) an attribute.

Examples:

  1. Either of these machines is suitable for the work.
  2. He has taken either of the books
  3. There were small lakes on either

Either is not used in negative sentences. Here the negative pro­noun neither is used instead:

Compare:

Either of them will do = Neither of them will do.

 

  1. The defining pronoun – other

Other denotes some object (objects) different from the one (ones) mentioned before. The defining pronoun other has two cases: (a) com­mon case – other; (b) genitive case – other’s.

Examples:

  1. He was beside the preacher at the other end of the table. In the other room he was drinking coffee.
  2. He lived at the expense of other’s

The defining pronoun other has two numbers: (a) singular other, (b) plural others.

Examples:

  1. This is mine, the other is yours. She has got two sisters. One of them is a doctor, the other is a teacher.
  2. The others hung back. When others had spoken about home he had been silent. Others wanted to know what he intended doing.

Other can be used as a noun-pronoun, and as an adjective-pro­noun. As noun-pronoun other functions as (a) the subject, (b) the ob­ject, an adjective-pronoun – (c) the attribute.

Examples:

  1. Others told her what a lucky woman she was. And around them others danced and laughed and talked.
  2. She is against me, she belteves others instead of me. “You are making me out bad in front of others ”, she cried.
  3. She got to her feet and went to the other There are other things too, but that is the first.

Note: Unlike the majority of pronouns, other (both as a noun-pronoun and as an ad­jective-pronoun) can combine with (a) the article of definiteness and some (b) other determiners.

Examples

(a) The other book was not translated. I have sent one of the letters; the other is on the table.

(b) Then she gave me her other hand. That other problem upset me. His sister’s other child was only ten.

 

  1. The defining pronoun – another

Another is a derived word. It is made up of other and the article of indefiniteness and therefore is used only with countable nouns in the singular.

Examples:

Another book, another table, another dog, etc.

Note: When the noun is in the plural, other is used instead of another.

Compare:

another book – other books, another table – other tables, another dog – other dogs.

Another means: (a) a different one, (a) an additional one. Examples:

  1. Give me another book (not this one). Take another cup, this one is two small.
  2. She asked me a question, then She took another pen. Another can be used as a noun-pronoun and as an adjective-pro­noun. As noun pronoun another functions as (a) a subject, (b) an ob­ject, an adjective-pronoun (c) an attribute.

Examples:

  1. Another is that colored people are half white. Another was not suitable.
  2. You may take He tore the letter and wrote another.
  3. Rosa recalled another I have seen it happen in another place.
  4. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS

Definition:

Pronouns which point out some person or thing indefinitely are called indefinite pronouns.

The subclass of indefinite pronouns comprises the following items: some, any, somebody, someone, something, anybody, anyone, anything.

 

  1. The indefinite pronouns some and any.

Some is commonly used in affirmative and imperative sentences. It has the following meanings:

  • Some usually expresses an indefinite number or amount or in­definite quality.

Examples:

Give me some water. They gave us some nice pictures.

They have got some information on the subject.

  • Some used with a singular count noun, may mean a particular but unidentified person or thing.

Examples:

Some boy has written the new words on the board. They have

bought some old house in the country.

  • Some is very often used for contrast. Then it is strongly stressed.

Examples:

There were a lot of guests in the hall. Some were dancing,

some were not. Some boys don’t like noisy games.

  • Some also means

Example:

He left her some ten years ago.

  • Some is used in special and general questions expressing a re­quest or a proposal.

Examples:

Do you want some water? Why don ‘tyou have some apples?

All these questions show that the speaker expects positive answers or actions.

 

Any is commonly used in negative and interrogative sentences.

Examples:

Did you see any books on the table? We didn ’/ like any of them.

He never had any luck.

 

Any may also be used in affirmative sentences in the following cases:

  1. in affirmative sentences any means it doesn’t matter who, what or

Examples:

You may take any book you like. He was interested in any ex­periment. Which newspaper would you like to read? – Any will do.

  1. any is used when some doubt or condition is implied. This often occurs (a) in object clauses introduced by if or whether or (b) m con­ditional clauses.

Examples:

  1. I don’t know if/whether she has got any I wonder if/whether you know any of these boys.
  2. If you have any free time, ring me up.

Some and any can be used as a noun-pronoun and as an adjective- pronoun. As a noun-pronoun they are used in the functions of (a) the subject, (b) the object, as an adjective-pronoun – (c) the attribute.

Examples:

  1. . . some were drinking coffee, others were dancing. I wonder whether there are any .
  2. There is a lot of bread. You may take Though he had a lot of interesting books, he didn’t want to give any
  3. I managed to make some conversation till tea was brought in. Is there any chance of seeing him?

 

  1. The indefinite pronouns somebody, someone, something, any­body, anyone, anything.

These indefinite pronouns are compound words. They are formed by means of the pronouns some, any and the words -body, -one and – thing

Somebody, someone, anyone, anybody are used when speaking of persons. They have two case forms: (a) the common case – some­body, someone, anybody, anyone; (b) the genitive case – somebody’s, someone’s, anybody’s, anyone’s.

Examples:

  1. There was somebody in the garden. He didn ’/ know if any­body/ anyone would come.
  2. I have found somebody’s Is it yours? To do such things is anybody ’s/anyone’s wish.

The pronouns something, anything refer to things. They are used only in the common case.

Examples:

There was something under the table.   Did anything happen to him? He doesn’t believe anything.

 

The difference in meaning between pronouns beginning with some- and those beginning with any- is similar to those between some and any, i.e. those beginning with some- are generally used in affirma­tive sentences, whereas those beginning with any- are generally used in interrogative and negative sentences.

 

In the common case they are used as noun-pronouns, but m the genitive case they are used as adjective-pronouns. As noun-pronouns they are used in the functions of (a) the subject, (b) the object, as ad­jective-pronouns – (c) the attribute.

Examples:

  1. Someone brought him a piece of meat. I think somebody had called me a child. Something had happened to her, of that he was sure. Has anything happened?
  2. The police couldn ‘tfrnd anybody in the room. I saw some­thing strange in the darkness. Not a man would know any­thing about it.
  3. It wasn’t anybody’s Anybody’s decision will do. He has taken somebody’s book by mistake.

 

As noun-pronouns they may be used with prepositions in the func­tion of a prepositional object.

Examples:

Strickland can ’/ work with anyone else in the studio.

He is not afraid of anything. 1 saw him with someone.

 

  1. The indefinite pronouns – many, much.

Many means a large number. As a noun-pronoun, it takes a plural verb. As an adjective-pronoun, it is used with countable nouns in the plural (a). Much means a large amount. As a noun-pronoun, it takes a singular verb. As an adjective-pronoun it is used with uncountable nouns in the singular (b).

Examples:

  1. Do many men appear there as usual?
  2. They did not make much difference to the major..

Many, much arc usually used in interrogative and negative sen­tences. In affirmative sentences many, much are replaced by such ex­pressions as: a lot of, plenty of, lots of, a great deal, a large number, a great deal of

Examples:

Now I have a lot of work to do.

They have taken lots of books from the library.

A number of boys came to help the old man.

 

At the same time many, much can be used in affirmative sentences in the following cases:

  • when they are used as (a) the subject, or (b) modify the subject of the sentence.

Examples:

  1. Many knew about it. Many people gathered in the garden after the rain.
  2. Much depends on their coming. Much water was taken from the well.
  • when many, much are modified by adverbs of degree as: (a) so, (b) too, (c) very, (d)

Examples:

  1. He has made so many mistakes in his test.
  2. We have too many problems to solve.
  3. There is very much snow in the yard.
  4. He took as many books as he could carry.

 

  • when much and many have emphatic stress:

Example:

She thought of many reasons why he had left her.

4) when much is used alone as a noun-pronoun in the function of an object.

Example:

She meant much to him.

Unlike other indefinite pronouns, much, many as adjective-pro­nouns have degrees of comparison. In the comparative and superlative degrees both pronouns have the same form.

It can be seen in the following table:

 

Positive degree Comparative degree Superlative degree
Many

Much

More most

 

Examples:

He translated more articles than we thought. Most students got excellent marks.

 

Many and much have a partitive meaning if they are followed by an of phrase.

Examples:

Many of the guests have already come.

Much of the cotton has been saved from the fire.

 

Many, much as noun-pronouns are used in the function of (a) the subject, (b) the object, as adjective-pronouns (c) the attribute. Examples:

  1. Many knew everything about him. Much has been done lately.
  2. He took too many and left the room.
  3. They will want more food and many other things.

 

  1. The indefinite pronouns – little, few.

Little means a small amount. As a noun pronoun, it takes a (a) sin­gular verb. As an adjective-pronoun, it is used with (b) uncountable nouns. Examples:

  1. Little was said about it.
  2. There was little water in the bottle.

Few means a small number. As a noun-pronoun, it takes (a) plural verb. As an adjective-pronoun it is used with (b) countable nouns. Examples:

  1. Few know her new address.
  2. Few students took part in that competition.

As noun-pronouns little, few are used in the functions of (a) the subject, (b) the object, as adjective-pronouns (c) the attribute. Examples:

  1. Little was known about his life. Few are interested in that problem.
  2. There were very many things in the box but she took
  3. I was English and she knew few English people. I gave up my small apartment, sold my few

 

Like many, much, the pronouns little, few have degrees of com­parison when they are used as adjective-pronouns.

This can be seen in the following table.

Positive degree Comparative degree Superlative degree
Few

Little

Fewer

Less

Fewest

least

 

 

 

 

 

 

Little, few may be used with the article of indefiniteness. In this case they have a positive meaning. A little, a few mean (a) bir az, bir neqo, little, few – (b) az.

Examples:

  1. I have a little money, so I can buy this suit for you. I have a few books, so you may take two of them.
  2. I have little money, so I can’t buy this suit for you. I have few books, so I can’t give you any. .

 

  1. NEGATIVE PRONOUNS

Definition:

Pronouns denoting negation are called negative pronouns. Nega­tive pronouns are the following:

no, none, nobody, no one, nothing, neither.

 

No, none, neither are simple, but nothing, nobody are compound and no one is a composite pronoun.

Unlike contemporary Azerbaijani, modem English admits of but one negation in a verbal construction. Therefore negative pronouns are used with affirmative verbs to form negative sentences.

Examples:

I saw nothing in the room. .

Nobody met us there.

 

  1. The negative pronoun

No is only used as an adjective-pronoun. It is used with all subclasses of nouns both in the singular (a) and in the plural (b). In such cases the noun is used without any article.

Examples:

  1. There was no booking-office at the little siding.
  2. They have no real roots of their own. No words can express my grief.

As an adjective-pronoun no is used in the function of an attribute. Examples:

No sound came from her. There was silence everywhere; no mo­tion anywhere. No need for either of them to say. They took no note for the world was theirs.

 

  1. The negative pronoun

None may refer to both (a) things and (b) persons. Depending on the context and situation the verb following none may be singular or plu­ral.

Examples:

  1. None of his books has/have been translated into English.
  2. None of her sisters was/were at the party.

None as a noun-pronoun is used in the functions of (a) the subject, and (b) the object.

Examples:

  1. There was none in the box. None of them was there. None could answer.
  2. The master needed some new instruments, but he had

 

  1. The negative pronoun nobody.

Nobody is derived from two words: no and body. It refers to persons only.

Nobody has two cases: (a) common case – nobody ; (b) genitive case – nobody’s.

Examples:

(a) Nobody had ever found out who had done this.

(b) That was nobody’s plan.

 

The common case of the pronoun nobody may be used as (a) the subject, and (b) the object. But in the genitive case it is used as (c) the at­tribute.

When nobody is used as the subject, the predicate verb is in the singular.

Examples:

  1. Nobody ever knows anything about him. Nobody will ever look at me like that. Nobody knows his address.
  2. They police found nobody in the room.
  3. It was nobody’s decision.

 

  1. The negative pronoun no one.

No one consists of two words – the negative pronoun no and indef­inite personal pronoun one. It refers to persons only.

No one has two cases: (a) common caseno one, (b) genitive case no one’s.

Examples:

  1. No one knew his new address.
  2. No one’s parents were at the party.

The common case of the pronoun no one may be used as (a) the sub­ject, (b) as the object, and in the genitive case it is used as (c) the attribute. When no one is used as the subject, the predicate verb is in the singular.

Examples:

  1. No one was late.
  2. I remember no one in that family.
  3. We could find no one’s telephone number.

 

  1. The negative pronoun nothing

Nothing consists of the negative pronoun no and the noun thing It refers to things only. As a noun-pronoun nothing is used in the functions of (a) the subject, (b) the predicative, and (c) the object.

Examples:

  1. There was nothing else to know. Nothing happened to him. Nothing could alter that.
  2. “It’s nothing”, she said.
  3. I tell you. I’ve done nothing and the day has almost gone. They have nothing you can take from them.

 

When nothing is used with the preposition it functions as a prepo­sitional object.

Example

They will be locked up in the big house with nothing to eat. <6. The negative pronoun neither

Neither refers to two persons or things and therefore correlates only with count nouns. Neither means none of the two. It can be post- modified by an of phrase.

Example:

Neither of them answered. Neither of them is correct.

As a noun-pronoun neither is used in the functions of (a) the sub­ject, (b) the object and as an adjective-pronoun – (c) the attribute. Examples:

  1. Neither of them paid any more attention to the food.
  2. I like neither of them.

Neither book interested him.

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