The Noun, Program 40, PART 1

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The Noun, Program 40, PART 1

The noun denotes thingness in a general sense. Thus nouns name things (book, table), living beings (man, tiger), places (valley, London, England), materials (iron, oil), processes (life, laughter), states (sleep, consciousness), abstract notions (socialism, joy) and qualities (kindness, courage) chrome browser. – program 40 online lessons
Semantic characteristics
 Semantically all nouns fall into proper nouns and common nouns.
Proper nouns are geographical names (New York, the Thames, Asia, the Alps), names of individual (unique) persons (John, Byron, Brown), names of the months and the days of the week (January, Sunday), names of planets (the Moon, the Sun, the Earth), names of ships, hotels, clubs (Shepherd’s Hotel), of buildings, streets, parks, bridges (Buckingham Palace, Trafalgar Square, Regent Street, Charing Cross Road, Piccadilly Circus, Kensington Gardens, Hyde Park, Waterloo Bridge), of institutions, organizations, magazines and newspapers (the United Nations, the New Times, the Guardian) 해킹팀 자료. They are written with – program 40 online lessons
Common nouns can be classified into nouns denoting objects that can be counted and those that cannot. So there are count and non-count and collective common nouns. The former are inflected for number, whereas the latter are not. Further distinction is into concrete nouns, abstract nouns and nouns of material 가면라이더 영화 다운로드. – program 40 online lessons

Semantic classification of English nouns is shown in the following scheme:

Concrete nouns semantically fall into three subclasses.

1. Nouns denoting living beings – persons and animals:
boy, girl, dog, cat Adobe Photoshop cs5.
2. Nouns denoting inanimate objects:
table, chair.
3. Collective (co6mpatenahɵe) nouns denoting a group of persons:
family, crowd.
There are some nouns which may be classified both as count and non-count 사운드카드 드라이버. They often have considerable difference in meaning in the two classes. – program 40 online lessons

  • Count nouns – program 40 online lessons
    He used to read an evening paper.
    She was a beauty.
    They hoped to have pleasant experiences.
    I saw him in a group of youths.
  • Non-count nouns – program 40 online lessons
  • They wrappped up the present in brown paper Download Zave. Beauty is to be admired.
    He has a great deal of experience.
    Vie was speaking with the enthusiasm of youth.

A noun of material used as a count noun undergoes a semantic change so as to denote: kind of, type of: He found her drinking Chinese tea, which she didn’t like — but what could one do, other teas were common. The same can be seen in the title A. Conan Doyle devised for a story “Upon the Distinction Between the Ashes of the Various Tobaccos”.

Morphological composition
According to their morphological composition nouns can be divided into simple, derived, and compound Windows 2000 iso.
Simple nouns consist of only one root-morpheme: dog, chair, room, roof, leaf.
Derived nouns (derivatives) are composed of one root-morpheme and one or more derivational morphemes (prefixes or suffixes). – program 40 online lessons

The main noun-forming suffixes are those forming abstract nouns and those forming concrete, personal nouns Download the song for free.

Abstract nouns 
-age: leakage, vicarage
-al: betrayal, portrayal, refusal
-ancy/-ency: vacancy, tendency
-dom:freedom kingdom
-hood: brotherhood, childhood
-ing: meaning, cleaning
-ion/~sion/-tion/-ation: operation, tension, examination
-ism: darvinism, patriotism
-ment: agreement, unemployment
-ness: darkness, weakness
-ship: friendship, membership
-ty: cruelty, sanity, banality
-th: growth, strength
-y: difficulty, honesty – program 40 online lessons

Concrete nouns
-(i)an: physician, Parisian, republican
-ant/-ent: assistant, student, informant
-arian: vegetarian
-ee: refugee, employee, payee
-er: teacher, worker, singer
-ician: musician, politician
-ist: socialist, artist
-or: visitor, actor
-let: booklet, leaflet
-ess: actress, tigress, waitress
-ine: heroine
-ix: proprietrix
-ette: usherette
The four suffixes -ess, -ine, -ette are feminine. – program 40 online lessons

  • Sometimes nouns formed by abstract noun suffixes may come to denote concrete things or persons as in translation (a process and its result), beauty (may denote an abstract notion and a beautiful woman) bee box 다운로드.
    Compound nouns consist of at least two stems. The meaning of a compound is not a mere sum of its elements. The main types of compound nouns are:
  • noun stem + noun stem: seaman; airmail
  • adjective stem + noun stem: bluebell, blackbird,  verb stem + noun stem: pickpocket,
  • gerund + noun stem: looking-glass, dancing-hall
  • noun stem + prepositions + noun stem: father-in-law, mother-in-law,  man-of-war
  • substantivised phrases: forget-me-not, pick-me-up

Morphological characteristics
Morphologically nouns are characterized by the grammatical categories of number and case Download the greeting.
Gender does not find regular morphological expression. The distinction of male, female, and neuter may correspond to the lexical meaning of the noun: – program 40 online lessons

  • masculine (names of male beings) – boy, man, husband, bachelor, ox, cock;
  • feminine (names of female beings) – girl, woman, wife, maid, cow, hen;
  • neuter (names of inanimate objects) – table, house.
  • The distinction may be also expressed by word-formation of different types:
    a) feminine suffixes
    -ess (actress, hostess, poetess, tigress),
    -ine (heroine),
    -ette (usherette);
    b) compounds of different patterns:
    noun + noun stem 
    Tom-cat doctor dog-otter
  • male-frog cock- pheasant
    – Tabby-cat
    – woman-doctor
    – bitch-otter
    – female-frog
    – hen-pheasant
  • pronoun + noun stem
    he-wolf he-cousin
    – she-wolf
    – she-cousin

There are also some traditional associations of certain nouns with gender. These are apparent in the use of personal or possessive pronouns: – program 40 online lessons
a) moon and earth are referred to as feminine, sun as masculine:

It is pleasant to watch the sun in his chariot of gold and the moon in her chariot of pearl. At first the earth was large, but every moment she grew smaller.
b) the names of vessels (ship, boat, steamer, ice-breaker, cruiser, etc.) are referred to as feminine:
The new ice-breaker has started on her maiden voyage.
She is equipped with up-to-date machinery. – program 40 online lessons
c) the names of vehicles (car, carriage, coach) may also be referred to as feminine, especially by their owners, to express their affectionate attitude to these objects:
She is a fine car.
d) the names of countries, if the country is not considered as a mere geographical territory, are referred to as feminine:
England is proud of her poets.
But: If the name of the country is meant as a geographical one the pronoun it is used. Iceland is an island, it is washed on three sides by the Atlantic Ocean. – program 40 online lessons – program 40 online lessons

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