Phonetics Notes for Program 40

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Lecture 1 Phonetics as a science

The term “phonetics” is of Greek origin, it means “matters pertaining to the voice, the science of voice”. In modern phonetics it is often defined rather commonly as “the science of speech sounds considered as elements of language”, “the science which treats the sounds of which a language is composed”. The study involves:

1) the production of the sounds (physiologically and acoustically);

2) the transmission of the sounds by the air;

3) the perception of the sounds, which may be subdivided into their reception and their interpretation.

So, phonetics can be defined as the study of speech, of its production by the human articulatory apparatus, of its characteristics as an acoustic signal, and of its processing by the human auditory and cognitive systems

The most important function of any language is to serve for intercourse. No thought, no idea can be expressed without sentences which consist of words. Spoken words in all the languages consist of sounds. Letters are used to represent spoken words in writing only. Therefore any spoken language is first of all a language of sounds.

In order to speak any language one must be able to pronounce words and sentences in that language correctly. It means that the learners of a foreign language must first of all know how to pronounce isolated sounds, learn to join them within words and sentences. They must also know how sounds are modified in speech, which of the elements in words and sentences must be stressed and what intonation is used to express a certain thought.

Teachers of a foreign language must not only speak and read correctly, but also know how to teach correct pronunciation.

The teacher must also know all the difficulties that may arise in teaching good pronunciation and possess methods of overcoming these difficulties.

In order to master the pronunciation of a foreign language the learner must know how to use the organs of speech to produce new speech sounds.

Students of foreign languages must aim learning to pronounce foreign words correctly without thinking of how they do it; that means that they must acquire new speech habits.

New speech habits are attained by learning and remembering the articu­lation of new speech sounds and other phonetic phenomena, then by syste­matic training on the basis of special sets of exercises in order to make new speech habits stable. Exercises may be of different kinds; they may be read at the lesson after the teacher or after listening a record when the student works by himself.

Phonetics is not a new science. It was known to the ancient Greeks and to the ancients Hindus. The scientists of that time were concerned with speech sounds only. Phonetics as an independent science began to develop in only in the XI century. There has been considerable progress and growth in the XX century. Within the last century especially, new concepts have sprung up new schools have come into existence; new methods of investigation have been discovered 웹해킹. So phonetics has developed enough to have the branches of its own. The most important of these are Special phonetics, General phonetics, Theoretical phonetics, Practical phonetics, Acoustic phonetics, Physiological phonetics, Comparative phonetics.

All the branches of phonetics are closely connected not only with one another, but also with the other branches of linguistics grammar, lexicology, stylistics etc.

Phonetics is connected not only with linguistic science, but also with the other sciences. For example, the study of intonation is impossible without a good knowledge of Logic. Acoustic phonetics is connected with Physics, Mathematics and Cybernetics. Physiological phonetics is connected with Physiology, Anatomy and Anthropology. Historical phonetics is connected with General History and the History of the people whose language is studied; it is also connected with Archaeology.

 

NOTES ON ENGLISH PHONETICS

Phonetics is a branch of linguistics, which deals with the investigation of the sound means of a certain language from the point of view of their articulation, acoustic qualities and semantics.

The phoneme is the smallest linguistic unit, which is capable of differentiating the meaning and grammar forms of words.

Phonemes are elements of language. The number of them is quite definite for every separate language. In British English there are 44 phonemes: 20 vowel phonemes and 24 consonant ones. In speech they manifest themselves in the form of phonemic variants or allophones.

The allophone is a material representation of the phoneme in speech. They appear in connected speech as a result of assimilation or reduction or due to the individual speech habits. The number of allophones in a language is unlimited.

Phonetic transcription is a sort of phonetic alphabet, a system of symbols in which every phoneme is supposed to have its own symbol. It helps in learning a foreign language.

 

 

QUESTIONS

  1. What does the term phonetics mean? (The term “phonetics” is of Greek origin, it means “matters pertaining to the voice, the science of voice”. In modern phonetics it is often defined rather commonly as “the science of speech sounds considered as elements of language”, “the science which treats the sounds of which a language is composed”.)
  2. What is the most important function of any language?
  3. What do spoken words consist of?
  4. What are the letters used for?
  5. What must one do in order to speak any foreign language?
  6. What must teachers of a foreign language know?
  7. What must learners of foreign language know in order to master the pronunciation of a foreign language?
  8. Is Phonetics a new science? (Phonetics is not a new science xp builder 다운로드. It was known to the ancient Greeks and to the ancients Hindus. The scientists of that time were concerned with speech sounds only.)
  9. When did phonetics begin to develop as an independent science? (Phonetics as an independent science began to develop in only in the XI century.)
  10. What are the important braches of phonetics? (The most important of the branches of phonetics are Special phonetics, General phonetics, Theoretical phonetics, Practical phonetics, Acoustic phonetics, Physiological phonetics, Comparative phonetics.)
  11. Are branches of the phonetics connected with each other? (All the branches of phonetics are closely connected not only with one another, but also with the other branches of linguistics grammar, lexicology, stylistics etc.)
  12. Is phonetics connected with other sciences? (Phonetics is connected not only with linguistic science, but also with the other sciences. For example, the study of intonation is impossible without a good knowledge of Logic. Acoustic phonetics is connected with Physics, Mathematics and Cybernetics. Physiological phonetics is connected with Physiology, Anatomy and Anthropology. Historical phonetics is connected with General History and the History of the people whose language is studied; it is also connected with Archaeology.)

 

 

 

Lecture 2

THE ESSENTIALS OF ENGLISH PHONETICS

THE ORGANS OF SPEECH AND THEIR FUNCTIONS

Our speech consists of sounds produced by the stream of air coming out of the lungs. When the air leaves the lungs it passes, through the windpipe. The upper part of the windpipe is called the larynx. Inside the larynx there are two elastic muscular, bands placed on the two sides of it. They are called the vocal cords.

The vocal cords can be brought near together or can move apart. The opening between the vocal cords is called the glottis.

When the vocal cords are tense and approach each other the air, passing between, them, makes them vibrate. This vibration of the vocal cords pro­duces a certain musical sound called voice. Vowels and voiced consonants are produced when the vocal cords are drawn near and vibrate.

When the vocal cords are near one another, but not tens, the air passes between them with a slight friction and we hear whisper.

When the vocal cords move apart the air passes freely between them and they do not vibrate. In this case no voice is produced.

From the larynx the stream of air passes into the pharynx at the back of the mouth cavity. From the pharynx the stream of air may pass out either through the month cavity or through the nasal cavity.

The mouth cavity is separated from the nasal cavity by the palate, or the roof of the mouth. The palate is conditionally divided into three parts:

  • the part behind the upper teeth is called the alveoli, or the teeth ridge;
  • the part behind the alveoli is called the hard palate;
  • the part behind the hard palate is called the soft palate, or the velum;
  • the end of the soft palate is called the

The alveoli and the hard palate cannot move, but the soft palate with the uvula can move up and down.

When the soft palate is raised, the uvula approaches the back of the pharynx and blocks the passage into the nasal cavity, and the stream of air can pass only through the mouth cavity and oral sounds are produced 워스트.

When the soft palate moves down, it opens the passage into fill nasal cavity and the stream of air can pass through it. In this case nasal sounds are produced.

The other important speech organ which lies in the lower part of the nasal cavity is the tongue.

The tongue is conditionally divided into the following parts:

  • the blade (front) with the tip which lies behind the upper teeth and underneath the alveoli;
  • the middle of the tongue which lies underneath the hard palate;
  • the back of the tongue which lies underneath the soft palate;
  • the root of the tongue which lies underneath the uvula.

The blade of the tongue can move in all directions, the middle of the tongue is less movable and the back of the tongue can move only up and down.

Those organs of speech which can move and take an active part in the production of speech sounds are called active organs. They are: the vocal cords, the tongue, the soft palate with the uvula and the lips. Those organs of speech which cannot move, but with which the active organs form an obstruction, are called passive organs. They are the teeth, the alveoli and the hard palate.

 

The movements of the lower jaw, the tongue and the lips change, the shape and the volume of the mouth cavity. The-lips may also take different positions and change the shape and size of the mouth opening. The volume of the cavity of the pharynx may be changed by the contraction of the back wall of the pharynx, and by moving the root of the tongue towards the back of the pharynx.

The mouth cavity, the nasal cavity, and the pharynx are resonance chambers.

 

 

LECTURE 3. the classification of english vowel phonemes

On the articulatory level the vowels change:

  1. in the stability of articulation,
  2. in the tongue position,
  3. in the lip position,
  4. in the character of the vowel end.

Besides that vowels differ in their length.

  1. STABILITY OF ARTICULATION

All English vowels are divided into three groups: pure vowels or monophthongs, diphthongs and diphthongoids.

Monophthongs are vowels the articulation of which is almost unchanging. The quality of such vowels is relatively pure. The English monophthongs are: [ı], [e], [æ], [L], [a:], [Ŋ], [Ɔ:], [ʊ], [з:], [ә].

In the pronunciation of diphthongs the organs of speech glide from one vowel position to another within one syllable. The starting point, the nucleus, is strong and distinct. The glide which shows the direction of the quality change is very weak. The English diphthongs are: [eı], [aı], [Ɔı], [aʊ], [əʊ], [eə], [ɪə], [ʊə].

In the pronunciation of diphthongoids the articulation is slightly changing but the difference between the starting point and the end is not so distinct as it is in the case of diphthongs. There are two diphthongoids in English: [i:], [u:].

  1. tongue position

The tongue may move forward and backward, up and down, thus changing the quality of vowel sounds destiny guardians soundtrack.

(1) When the tongue moves forward and backward, various parts of it may be raised in the direction of the palate.

  • When the tongue is in the front part of the mouth, and the front part of it is raised to  the hard palate, a f r o n t vowel is pronounced: [i:], [e], [æ].
  • When the tongue is in the front part of the mouth, but slightly retracted, and the part of the tongue nearer to centre than to front is raised, a f r o n t–r e t r a c t e d vowel is pronounced: [ı].
  • When the front of the tongue is raised towards the back part of the hard palate, the vowel is called c e n t r a l: [L], [з:], [ә].
  • When the tongue is in the back part of the mouth, and the back of it is raised towards the soft palate, a b a c k vowel is pronounced: [a:], [Ŋ], [Ɔ:], [u:].
  • When the tongue is in the back part of the mouth, but is slightly advanced, and the central part of it is raised towards the front part of the soft palate, a b a c k–a d v a n c e d vowel is pronounced: [ʊ].

(2) Moving up and down in the mouth various parts of the tongue may be raised to different height towards the roof of the mouth.

  • When the front or the back of the tongue is raised high towards the palate, the vowel is called c l o s e: [i:], [ı], [ʊ], [u:].
  • When the front or the back of the tongue is as low as possible in the mouth, o p e n vowels are pronounced: [æ], [a:], [Ŋ], [Ɔ:].
  • When the highest part of the tongue occupies the position intermediate between the close and the open one, m i d vowels are pronounced: [e], [L], [з:], [ә].

It is necessary to distinguish broad and narrow variants of close, mid and open vowels:

 

C l o s e vowels narrow variant [i:], [u:]
broad variant [ı], [ʊ]
M i d vowels narrow variant [e], [з:], [ә(ʊ)]
broad variant [L], [ә], [e(ә)]
O p e n vowels narrow variant [Ɔ:], [Ɔ(ı)]
broad variant [æ], [a:], [Ŋ], [a(ı, ʊ)]
  1. lip position

The shape of the mouth cavity is very dependent on the position of the lips.

  • When the lips  are neutral or spread, the vowels are called u n r o u n d e d: [i:], [ı], [e], [æ], [L], [a:], [з:], [ә].
  • When the lips are drawn together so that the opening between them is more or less round, the vowels are called r o u n d e d: [Ŋ], [Ɔ:], [ʊ], [u:].
  1. character of vowel end

The quality of all English monophthongs in the stressed position is strongly affected by the following consonant of the same syllable.

  • If a stressed vowel is followed by a strong voiceless consonant, it is cut off by it. In this case the end of the vowel is strong, and the vowel is called c h e c k e d. Such vowels are heard in stressed closed syllables ending in a strong voiceless consonant, e.g. better, car
  • If a vowel is followed by a weak voiced consonant or by no consonant at all, the end of it is very weak, and the vowel is called f r e e. Such vowels are heard in closed syllables ending in a voiced consonant or in an open syllable, e.g. before, money, begger, bea

vowel length

Vowels are capable of being continued during a longer or a shorter period. All English vowels (monophthongs) are divided into long and short.

Long vowels are: [i:], [a:], [Ɔ:], [u:], [з:].

Short vowels are: [ı], [e], [æ], [L], [Ŋ], [ʊ], [ә].

All English vowels are longer when they are strongly stressed, cf in’form – ‘uniform. They are also longer in the nuclear syllable, cf

It is six o’mclock now.                                               They are only msix finale 2009 다운로드.

 

 

 

 

LECTURE 4. THE CLASSIFICATION OF ENGLISH CONSONANT PHONEMES

On the articulatory level the consonants change:

  1. In the degree of noise.
  2. In the manner of articulation.
  3. In the place of articulation.
  4. THE DEGREE OF NOISE

According to the degree of noise English consonants are divided into two big classes:

Class A. Noise consonants.

Class B. Sonorants.

  1. In the production of noise consonants there is a noise component characteristic. Noise consonant sounds vary:
  • in the work of the vocal cords;
  • in the degree of force of articulation.

According to the work of the vocal cords they may be voiceless and voiced.

When the vocal cords are brought together and vibrate we hear voice. Voiced consonants are: [b]‚ [d]‚ [g]‚ [v]‚ [z]‚ [ʒ]‚ [ð]‚ [ʤ].

If the vocal cords are apart and do not vibrate we hear only noise and the consonants are voiceless. Voiceless consonants are: [p]‚ [t]‚ [k]‚ [f]‚ [s]‚ [∫]‚ [Ө]‚ [ʧ]‚ [h].

The degree of noise may vary because of the force of articulation. Strong noise consonants (fortis) are produced with more muscular energy and stronger breath effort. They are: [p]‚ [t]‚ [k]‚ [f]‚ [s]‚ [∫]‚ [Ө]‚ [ʧ]‚ [h]. Weak noise consonants (lenis) are produced with a relatively weak breath effort. They are: [b]‚ [d]‚ [g]‚ [v]‚ [z]‚ [ʒ]‚ [ð]‚ [ʤ].

  1. Sonorants (or sonorous consonants) are made with tone prevailing over noise because of a rather wide air passage. They are: [m]‚ [n]‚ [ŋ]‚ [l]‚ [r]‚ [w]‚ [j].

 

  1. THE MANNER OF ARTICULATION

The manner of articulation of consonants is determined by the type of obstruction. The obstructions may be complete, incomplete and momentary.

When the obstruction is complete the organs of speech are in contact and the air stream meets a closure in the mouth or nasal cavities as in the production of [p]‚ [b]‚ [t]‚ [d]‚ [k]‚ [g]‚ [ʧ]‚ [ʤ]‚ [m]‚ [n]‚ [ŋ].

In case of an incomplete obstruction the active organ of speech moves towards the point of articulation, and the air stream goes through the narrowing between them as in the production of [f]‚ [v]‚ [s]‚ [z]‚ [∫]‚ [ʒ]‚ [Ө]‚ [ð]‚ [h]‚ [l]‚ [r]‚ [w]‚ [j].

Momentary obstructions are formed in the production of the Russian sonorants [p]‚ [p’]‚ when the tip of the tongue taps quickly several times against the teeth ridge.

According to the manner of articulation consonants may be of four groups:

  1. Occlusive-constrictive (affricates) Download The Man Who Became King.

 

  1. Occlusive consonants are sounds in the production of which the air stream meets a complete obstruction in the mouth. Occlusive noise consonants are called s t o p s, because the breath is completely stopped at some point of articulation, and then it is released with a slight explosion, that is why they are also called p l o s i v e s.

According to the work of the vocal cords stops may be voiced and voiceless. Occlusive voiced consonants are: [b]‚ [d]‚ [g]. Occlusive voiceless consonants are: [p]‚ [t]‚ [k]. According to the force of articulation English voiced stops are weak (lenis), voiceless are strong (fortis).

Occlusive sonorants are also made with a complete obstruction, but the soft palate is lowered, and the air stream escapes through the nose, so they are nasal : [m]‚ [n]‚ [ŋ].

 

  1. Constrictive consonants are those in the production of which the air stream meets an incomplete obstruction in the resonator, so the air passage is constricted.

Constrictive noise consonants are called f r i c a t i v e s, in the articulation of which the air passage is constricted, and the air escapes through the narrowing with friction. According to the work of the vocal cords they may be voiced ([v]‚ [z]‚ [ʒ]‚ [ð]) and voiceless ([f]‚ [s]‚ [∫]‚ [Ө]‚ [h]). According to the force of articulation voiced fricatives are weak (lenis), voiceless fricatives are strong (fortis).

Constrictive sonorants are also made with an incomplete obstruction, but with a rather wide air passage, so tone prevails over noise: [l]‚ [r]‚ [w]‚ [j]. They are all oral, because in their production the soft palate is raised.

 

  1. Occlusive-constrictive consonants or affricates are noise consonant sounds produced with a complete obstruction which is slowly released, and the air escapes from the mouth with some friction. There are only two occlusive-constrictives in English: [ʧ] which is voiceless and strong (fortis) and [ʤ] which is voiced and weak (lenis). Affricates are oral according to the position of the soft palate.

 

  1. Rolled consonants are sounds pronounced with periodical momentary obstructions when the tip of the tongue taps quickly several times against the teeth ridge and vibrates in the air stream. They are the Russian [p]‚ [p’].
  2. THE PLACE OF ARTICULATION

The place of articulation is determined by the active organ of speech against the point of articulation. There may be one place of articulation or focus, or two places of articulation or foci when active organs of speech contact with two points of articulation. In the first case consonants are called u n i c e n t r a l, in the second they are b i c e n t r a l.

According to the position of the active organ of speech against the point of articulation (i 무한도전 영동고속도로 가요제. e. the place of articulation) consonants may be:

  1. Labial consonants are made by the lips. They may be b i l a b i a l and l a b i o – d e n t a l. Bilabial consonants are produced when both lips are active: [p]‚ [b]‚ [m]‚ [w]. Labio-dental consonants are articulated with the lower lip against the edge of the upper teeth: [f]‚ [v].
  2. Lingual consonants are classified into f o r e l i n g u a l, m e d i o l i n g u a l and b a c k l i n g u a l.

Forelingual consonants are articulated with the tip or the blade of the tongue. They differ in the position of the tip of the tongue. According to its work they may be:

  • a p i c a l, if the tip of the tongue is active: [t]‚ [d]‚ [s]‚ [z]‚ [∫]‚ [ʒ]‚ [Ө]‚ [ð]‚ [ʧ]‚ [ʤ]‚ [n]‚ [l];
  • d o r s a l, if the blade of the tongue takes part in the articulation; the tip is passive and lowered. In English there are no dorsal consonants;
  • c a c u m i n a l, if the tip of the tongue is at the back part of the teeth ridge, but a depression is formed in the blade of the tongue: [r].

According to the place of obstruction forelingual consonants may be:

  • interdental;
  • dental;
  • alveolar;
  • post-alveolar;
  • palato-alveolar.

I n t e r d e n t a l consonants or interdentals are made with the tip of the tongue projected between the teeth: [Ө]‚ [ð].

D e n t a l consonants or dentals are produced with the blade of the tongue against the upper teeth: e.g. the Russian [т], [д].

A l v e o l a r consonants or alveolars are articulated with the tip against the upper teeth ridge: [t]‚ [d]‚ [s]‚ [z]‚ [n]‚ [l].

P o s t – a l v e o l a r consonants or post-alveolars are made when the tip or the blade of the tongue is against the back part of the teeth ridge or just behind it: [r].

P a l a t o – a l v e o l a r consonants or palato-alveolars are made with the tip or the blade of the tongue against the teeth ridge and the front part of the tongue raised towards the hard palate, thus having two places of articulation or foci: [ʧ]‚ [ʤ]‚ [∫]‚ [ʒ].

Mediolingual consonants are produced with the front part of the tongue. They are always p a l a t a l. Palatals are made with the front part of the tongue raised high to the hard palate: [j].

Backlingual consonants are also called velar, because they are produced with the back part of the tongue raised towards the soft palate: [k]‚ [g]‚ [ŋ].

  1. The glottal consonant [h] is articulated in the glottis.

 

Assimilation

Assimilation is a phonetic process by which one sound under the influence of a sound near it acquires some articulation and acoustic likeness to that of other sound.

Assimilation results in the appearance of new phonemic variants. Each case of assimilation must be analysed from the following view points:

  1. From the point of view of its direction it can be PROGRESSIVE, REGRESSIVE, RECIPROCAL, or DOUBLE 윈도우 미디어.
  2. From the point of view of its degree it can be COMPLETE, PARTIAL, INTERMEDIATE.

 

Directions of Assimilation

Considering its direction it is possible to distinguish 3 types of assimilation:

  1. PROGRESSIVE
  2. REGRESSIVE
  3. RECIPROCAL, or DOUBLE.
  4. In progressive assimilation the assimilated phoneme is influenced by the preceding one, e. g. programme, frail.
  5. In regressive assimilation the assimilated phoneme is influenced by the phoneme following it, e. g. tall, garden.
  6. In reciprocal assimilation the adjacent phonemes influence each other, e. g. train – /t/ becomes post-alveolar and /r/ becomes partially devoiced.

 

Degrees of Assimilation

Considering its degree assimilation can be classified into:

  1. COMPLETE
  2. INTERMEDIATE
  3. PARTIAL
  4. Assimilation is termed complete when the articulation of the assimilated phoneme fully coincides with that of the assimilating one, e. g. Does she? /™dVS Si||/.
  5. Assimilation is termed intermediate when the assimilated phoneme changes into a certain third phoneme, e. g. hand + kerchief = /”h{Nk@tSIf/.
  6. Assimilation is termed partial when the assimilated phoneme acquires only some features similar to those of the assimilating phoneme.

 

Types of Partial Assimilation

There are 4 types of partial assimilation. It can affect:

  1. the place of articulation
  2. the work of the vocal cords
  3. the lip-position
  4. the manner of producing noise

 

  1. Assimilation affecting the place of articulation results in:
  2. the dental allophones of the alveolar /t, d, n, l, s, z/ when followed by /T, D/:

shut the door         all the doors       open the door       eighth

hold the door         pass the door    close the door      sixth

 

  1. the post-alveolar allophones of the alveolar /t, d, n, l/ when followed by the post-alveolar /r/:           try, dry, already.

 

  1. Assimilation affecting the work of the vocal cords results in:
  2. partially devoiced allophones of /w, l, r, j, m, n/ when preceded by /p, t, k, f, T, s, S/: play, pray, pure, few, threat, friend, quite.
  3. looked /k t/, finished /S t/, books /k s/, pipes /p s/.

 

  1. Assimilation affecting the lip-position results in labialized allophones of consonants before such phonemes as /w, u:, O:/: twenty, twice, tall, quick, tool.

 

  1. Assimilation affecting the manner of producing noise results in:
  2. plosionless allophones of /p b, t d, k g/ (loss of plosion); when they follow one another either within a word or at the junction of words the first plosive loses its plosion: actor /k t/, Big Ben /g b/, don’t talk /t t/, put down /t d/, eight pounds /t p/.
  3. When /p b, t d, k g/ are followed by the fricatives or affricates their plosion becomes fricative (fricative, or incomplete plosion): past five /t f/, temperate zone /t z/, hot summer /t s/.
  4. When /p b, t d, k g/ are followed by the nasal sonorants /m, n/ their plosion becomes nasal: garden /d n/.
  5. When /p b, t d, k g/ are followed by the lateral sonorant /l/ their plosion becomes lateral: middle /d l/, circle /k l/, good luck /d l/, uncle /k l/, little /t l/.

Note.  When /p, t, k/ are preceded by /s/ they lose their aspiration: skate /s k/, steak /s t/, space /s p/.

 

Word Stress

Word stress (word accent) is greater prominence given to one or more syllables in a word.

Stressed and unstressed syllables differ in quantity (length) and quality. They are longer when stressed and carry vowels of full formation. When unstressed, they undergo reduction and become shorter 한미약품 ci.

Word stress should be considered from the point of view of:

  • its place in a sentence;
  • its degree.

There are two degrees of word stress in English:

  • primary or strong (marked above the syllable);
  • secondary or weak (marked under the syllable).

The place of word stress depends on the quantity of syllables in a word.

Accented types of words

  1. Monosyllabic, disyllabic and trisyllabic words are stressed on the first syllable, e. g. “phoneme, “palate, “prefix, “pronoun, “family, “enemy, “imitate, “colony.

Note 1. In three-syllable words the stressed vowel is mostly read according to the second type of the syllable, e. g. family.

Note 2. In words with inseparable prefixes the stress falls on the syllable next to the prefix: be”gin, pre”pare.

  1. Most four-syllable words have the stress laid on the third syllable from the end, e. g. po”litical, ex”periment, hi”storical, ge”ology.
  2. Compound nouns are stressed on the first component, the second though unstressed has a vowel of full formation, e. g. “blackboard /-bO:d/.

Exceptions: “arm-°chair, “ice-°cream, “tape-re°corder.

  1. Polysyllabic words have the primary stress on the third syllable from the end and the secondary stress on the second pretonic syllable, e. g. %uni”versity, as%simi”lation, %possi”bility.
  2. The following groups of words have two primary stresses:
    • numerals (from 13 to 19): “four”teen;
    • compound adjectives: “well-“known, “good-“looking;
    • composite verbs: “get “up, “sit “down, “put “on;
    • words with separable prefixes:
      1. implying negation: un-, in-, il-, ir-, non-, dis-, e. g. unknown, inaccurate, irregular, non-aggressive, disbelief, illiterate;
      2. prefixes implying assistance: sub-, vice-, e.g. subtitle, vice-minister;
      3. prefixes with different meanings: mis– – meaning ‘wrong’ (misunderstand); over– – meaning ‘too much’ (overtired); pre– – meaning ‘before’ (pre-revolutionary); inter– – meaning ‘among’, ‘between’ (international); anti– – meaning ‘against’ (antiwar).

Note. Words listed under group 5 undergo variations in stress. In utterances they lose one stress or the other. When they are used attributively, the second stress is lost; when used predicatively, the first stress is lost:

Attributively                                              Predicatively

Fourteen °years.                                     He’s four°teen.||

A hard-working °boy.||                           The boy is hard-°working.||

A well-planned °house.||                         The house is well-°planned.||

A well-bred °man.||                                The man is well-°bred.||

 

English Intonation. Its Components.

 

The sentence possesses definite phonetic features. Each feature performs a definite task, and all of them work simultaneously. Thus,

  1. Sentences are usually separated from each other by pauses. If necessary, the sentence is subdivided into shorter word groups according to sense; these are called sense groups, or
  2. The pitch of the voice does not stay on the same level while the sentence is pronounced; it fluctuates, rising and falling on the vowels and voiced consonants 슈퍼 마리오. The fluctuations of the voice pitch are called speech melody.
  3. The word that is most important for the meaning of the sentence, i. e. the word acting as its semantic centre, is made prominent by stress and a special moving tone.
  4. Other words, also essential for the meaning, are stressed but the pitch of these words remains unchanged.
  5. Form words, performing grammatical functions (such as articles, prepositions, auxiliary, modal and link verbs) are usually left unstressed; they are mostly pronounced in their reduced (weak) forms.
  6. Connected English speech comes as a series of closely knit groups of words, each group containing only one stressed syllable. The stressed syllables occur at approximately equal intervals of time. This interrelationship of stress and time makes rhythm.
  7. The rate of speech is not constant, but is made to suit the semantic weight of each sense group of the utterance.
  8. The timbre of the voice changes in accordance with the emotions experienced by the speaker.

All the phonetic features of the sentence enumerated above (speech melody, sentence stress, tempo, rhythm, pauses and timbre) form a complex unity, called intonation.

The most important components of intonation from the linguistic point of view are speech melody, sentence stress, and rhythm.

 

Communicative Types of Sentences

The communicative type of a sentence is a linguistic category differentiated in speech in accordance with the aim of the utterance. There are 4 types of them. They are:

  1. Statements (categoric, non-categoric, implicatory).
  2. Questions (special, general, alternative, disjunctive).
  3. Imperatives (commands, requests).

 

The Segments of Intonation Group

The intonation contour of an extended syntagm consists of three functionally important parts:

 

  1. The pre-head.
  2. The scale, or head.
  3. The terminal tone.
  4. The tail.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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