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The adverb is a part of speech that may modify (a) a verb, (b) an adjective or (c) another adverb, such as:

  • to grow rapidly, to speak quickly, to go slowly, to sleep soundly, etc.;
  • very nice, too difficult, almost finished, nearly empty, ex­tremely dangerous etc.;
  • very nearly, too fast, very slowly, far away; extremely badly.


Morphological Structure of the Adverb

According to their morphological structure adverbs are divided into the following groups:

  1. Simple adverbs;
  2. Derivative adverbs;
  3. Compound adverbs;
  4. Composite adverbs.


  1. Simple adverbs are the adverbs which consist of the root only ; it has got neither suffixes nor prefixes, such as: fast, very, after, well, soon, then, there, here, hard, etc.
  2. Derivative adverbs are the adverbs that are formed by the suf­fixes, commonly with the suffix -ly, such as: slowly, immediately, constantly, quickly, generally, hardly, charmingly, etc.


There also exist some other adverb-forming suffixes in contem­porary English. They are the following:

ward(s): backward, eastward, homeward, forward(s), onward(s), downward(s), etc.

wise: clockwise, likewise, lengthwise, etc.

fold: twofold, manifold, tenfold, etc.;

most: uppermost, innermost, outermost;

ways: sideways, lengthways.

Note: Of these suffixes the first two are more productive than the rest.


  1. Compound adverbs are the adverbs that are formed of two stems, such as:


every+ where= everywhere

some+times sometimes

some+where= somewhere

 down+stairs= downstairs

no+where = nowhere

up+stairs upstairs, etc



  1. Composite adverbs are the adverbs that consist of two or more words, such as:

bit by bit, at last, at once, day by day, year after year, from time to time, a little bit, far enough, now and then, etc.



Types of Adverbs according to Their Meaning

According to their meaning adverbs fall under several groups. They are:

1) adverbs of time. These adverbs may be divided into two sub­groups:

  1. a) adverbs of definite time, such as: today, yesterday, tomorrow, now, then,:


Today is my friend’s birthday. Yesterday there was a large demonstration in the city. Tomorrow is going to be fine and dry according to the weather forecast.

  1. b) adverbs of indefinite time, such as: before, after, soon, presently, early, late, immediately, Examples:

I haven’t seen him before. We arrived soon after. They will come soon She will be here presently. The bus arrived five minutes early. I went to bed late. I recognized her immediately.

2) adverbs of place and direction, such as: in, out, above, around, below, outside, over, abroad, here, there, etc. Examples:

Open the bag and put the money in. He stays out late at nights. The clouds above began to get thicker. He looked around but could see nobody. The captain told the sailors to go below. It is cold outside, put your coat on. He pushed me and I fell over. I came to a difficulty Here I stopped. Mary can sit there.


3) adverbs of repetition and frequency, such as: often, seldom, ever, never, sometimes, etc.


I often visit my parents. People seldom go to the theatre now. Have you ever been to Tabriz? I will never agree with their de­mands. Sometimes I go to work by bus.

4) adverbs of cause and consequence, such as: therefore, consequently, accordingly, etc.


I’ve never been to China and therefore / don ’/ know much about China. My car broke down and consequently I arrived rather late. You told me to lock the door and I acted accordingly.

5) adverbs of manner, such as: slowly, quickly hard, kindly, well.


She slowly opened the door. He spoke quickly and I couldn’t catch him. If you want to learn aforeign language, you must work hard She treated the children kindly. The child speaks English well.

6) adverbs of degree and measure, such as: very, enough, nearly, almost, hardly, rather, extremely, etc. Examples:

Today is very hot. The house wasn’t big enough for us. They gave us nearly everything we needed. The speaker said almost nothing. I’m so tired that I can hardly stay awake. This hotel is rather more expensive than the others. I am extremely sorry for the delay.

7) adverbs of quantity, such as: once, twice, thrice, firstly, secondly, thirdly, etc.


I clean my car once a week. The tablets should be taken twice a day. We have English lesson thrice a week. They must finish the work firstly then have a rest. Secondly l should add the follow­ing. Thirdly you must work hard.

8) interrogative adverbs, such as: where, when, why, how.

The interrogative adverbs are used in interrogative sentences. Examples:

Where do you live? When did your father die? Why are you so late? How do you spell your name?

9) conjunctive adverbs, such as: where, when, why, how.

These adverbs are used to introduce (a) the subject, (a) the pred­icative and (b) the object subordinate clauses.


  1. a) How he escaped from jail is a mystery> to everybody.
  2. b) This is why he was not present at the meeting.
  3. c) I should like to know when the delegation will arrive.

10) relative adverbs, such as: when, where, how, why

These adverbs are used to connect attributive subordinate clauses with the main clause.

It is the sort of day when I ‘d like to work. This is the house where my friend lives. I liked the method how the teacher explained the new material. This is the reason why I came late.

It should be mentioned that it is difficult to define adverbs as a pure class of words, because they comprise a most heterogeneous group of words, and there is considerable overlap between this class and other classes of words. For example, alongside such undoubtful adverbs as here, there, often, seldom, etc. there are many others which also function as other word classes in contemporary English. Thus, ad­verbs like dead, clear, clean, slow, easy, etc. coincide with adjectives.


  1. dead body (adjective) – dead tired (adverb)
  2. clear waters (adjective) – to get clear away (adverb)
  3. clean hands (adjective) – to forget clean (adverb)
  4. a slow runner (adjective) – to go slow (adverb)

Adverbs like past, above, below etc, are homonymous with prepo­sitions.


  1. past years (adj) – past midnight (preposition)
  2. My bedroom is above (adverb) – We were flying above the clouds (prepositions)
  3. They live on the floor below. (adverb) – Skirts must be below the knee (preposition)

In some cases adverbs overlap with modal words.


  1. He said it surely. (adverb) – Surely, I know her. (modal word)
  2. He died unfortunately, (adverb) – Unfortunately, he died (modal word)

Morphological Category of the Adverb

The only morphological category of the adverb in contemporary English is that of the degrees of comparison.

Adverbs that are identical in form with adjectives form their de­grees of comparison similar to the adjectives, i.e. like adjectives, mono­syllabic adverbs take the suffix -er to form the comparative degree and -est the superlative degree, such as:

slowslower – slowest

quick – quicker quickest

hard – harder – hardest

late – laterlatest

 long – longer- longest, etc.

Some adverbs ending in -ly form degrees of comparison, droppmg tlr adverb-forming suffix -ly, such as: quickly – quicker quickest loudly louder – loudest

But most (a) disyllabic and (b) all the polysyllabic adverbs ending in -Ay form their comparative and superlative degree forms analytically, i.e. by taking more in the comparative degree and most in the superla­tive degree, such as:

Deeply-  more deeply – most deeply

Wisely-  more wisely-  most wisely

Softly-  more softly-  most softly, etc.

Beautifully-  more beautifully – most beautifully

happilymore happilymost happily

stupidly – more stupidly – most stupidly, etc.

Like adjectives, there is a small group of adverbs which forms their comparative and superlative degrees from different stems (sup­pletive forms). These adverbs are the following: wellbetter – best badlyworseworst little – less -least much – more – most farfurther/fartherfurthest/farthest


The conference was very well organized.

She sings better than you do.

Do as you think best.

The soldier was badly wounded.

Tom plays tennis worse than I do.

Manufacturing industry was worst affected by the L fuel shortage.


I slept very little last night.

The suit was less expensive.

He chose the least expensive of the hotels.

Thank you very much for the flowers.

I respect her more than her husband.

I She helped me (the) most when my parents died.

It is not very far from here to the post office.

It is not very far from here without resting.

Africa is further from England than France. s.

Who can swim farthest/furthest of all the boys?


Syntactic Functions of the Adverb

The syntactic function of the adverb is that of an adverbial modi­fier. An adverb may modify (a) verbs, (b) verbals, (c) adjectives, (d) adverbs.


  • She sings She looked directly at us. The trousers fit you perfectly, etc.
  • I am so tired, that 1 can hardly walk. Leaving the house hurriedly she said nothing.
  • He is very good at mathematics. She is very young to marry.
  • The work had been done very thoroughly. This train goes too fast, etc.

In some cases the adverb may also be used in the function of an attribute.



The above sentence is rather complicated.

The fat upstairs was locked.



Modal words and mterjections are called free parts of speech be­cause they never enter into the structure of the sentence; they stand out­side the structure of the sentence and are used freely in speech.




A modal word is a free pari of speech which expresses the altitude of the speaker to the reality.

As a part of speech modal words are characterized by the following features:

1) by their lexico-grammatical meaning of modality;

2) by their negative combinability;

3) by their functions of parenthetical elements and sentence words. Semantically modal words fall into three subgroups:

(1) modal words denoting certainty, such as:

certainly, surely, really, of course, indeed, definitely, naturally, no doubt, etc.


Certainly, he will die if you don’t call a doctor immediately. Surely, this will cause a great problem. Really, 1 don t want any more beer. Of course, I did recognize her. He left without fin­ishing his work. Did he. indeed? Definitely, the film is not suit­able for children. Naturally, as a beginner, I‘m not a very good driver yet. No doubt, it would haw been quite different if they had married.

(2) modal words denoting probability, such as: perhaps, possibly, maybe, probably, obviously, apparently, etc. Examples:

Perhaps, I’m wrong; I think he is coming to see us tomorrow.

Possibly, he is the most famous man in this town. Is that true?

Maybe, I am not sure. Probably, he’s stuck in a traffic jam. Ob­viously, you ha\’en 1 read todays newspaper. Apparently, they ‘re getting divorced.

(3) modal words denoting various shades of desirability or undesir­ability, such as:

happily, unhappily, luckily, unluckily, fortunately, unfortunately, etc.


Happily, the accident was prevented.

Unhappily, we did not see her again.

Luckily, we could meet again by chance.

Unluckily, he did not get the job.

Fortunately, he soon found the key that he had lost.

Unfortunately, we never found out the truth.

It should be mentioned that most modal words have developed from adverbs. This is the reason that very often there exists a formal identity between modal words and adverbs. For example, the modal words as unfortunately, certainly, surely, happily are homonymous with the ad­verbs unfortunately, certainly, surely, happily. But still there exist some distinctions between them. The chief distinction is that adverbs stand as close tothe verb as possihle in the sentence whereas modal words, as a rule, stand at the head of the sentence and a comma is used after diem; adverbs mostly refer to verbs, but modal words to the whole sentence.


He died unfortunately, (adverb);

Unfortunately, he died, (modal word).



The Words Yes and No

The words yes and no are a special group of words resembling modal words like modal words yes and no have negative combinability, they never enter into the structure of the sentence, and are used freely. As modal words, comma is put after them in writing and pause is made in oral speech, such as:

A re you a student? ‘ Yes he said.

Are you a driver?‘No’ , I  answered.

The lexical meanings of these words are those of affirmation and negation. Yes represents a previous statement adding the lexical meaning of affirmation, but no the meaning of negation. In this respect these words resemble modal words, because they, like modal words, denote the subjective attitude of the speaker to objective reality. Thus the hearer can answer one and the same question in two ways: to the question Is it cold outside? there can be two answers, depending upon the attitude of different hearers:

Yes. it is.

No, it is not.

In this point the words yes and no stand too close to the modal words. Taking into account the above-mentioned similarity between modal words and the words yes and no we consider it possible to name the words yes and no a special group of modal words.






The interjection is a free part of speech that expresses various emotions without naming them, such as: ah, oh, eh, dear me, hello, alas, hush, bravo, hurrah, my God, etc.

The interjection is a free part of speech characterized by the fol­lowing features:

  • It denotes emotions, will, or wish without naming them;
  • It has no grammatical categories, accordingly no morphological forms and no stem-building elements of its own;
  • It has negative combinability;
  • It is used as a parenthetical element or a sentence-word.

According to their meaning interjections fall under two main groups:

  1. Emotional interjections, such as: ah, oh, dear me, my God, alas, etc.

They express feelings of the speaker.


Oh, how horribleDear me! What a mass! My God, look at the time! Alas, we never seem to learn from our mistakes.

  1. Imperative interjections, such as: here, hush, sh, well, come, now, etc.

T hese interjections denote the will of the speaker or appeal to the hearer.


Here, where are you going with that ladder? Hush, you ‘ll wake the baby! Sh, you ‘ll wake Father! “Well, all right! ”, she said. Come, come, Miss Jones, be careful what you say! Be careful, now!

Interjections may be primary and secondary

1) Primary interjections are those which are not derived from other parts of speech. Most of them are simple words, such as: ah, oh, eh, sh, hush, bravo, etc.

2)Senondary interjections are derived from other parts of speech, such as:

well, come, now, here, why, etc.

Secondary interjections are homonymous with other words, espe­cially with adverbs.


The conference was very well organized (adverb).

Well, every­thing is OK! (interjection)

People used to go to the cinema, but now they prefer to watch TV more, (adverb).

Eddy, be careful, now! (interjection)

What are you doing here? (adverb).

Here, what are you doing there? (interjection)

Why are you so late today? (adverb).

Why, Alice, it is easy – a child could do it! (interjection)

As to their morphological structure interjections fall under the fol­lowing groups: simple, such as: hallo, come, now, here, etc; derivative, such as: goodness, etc; compound, such as: fiddlestick, goodbye, etc; composite, such as: Dear me, Good morning! Good evening!, God forbid!





The article is a functional part of speech which specifies the noun and denotes its indefiniteness or definiteness.

There exist two articles in contemporary English according to their grammatical meaning and function in speech: 1) the article of indefiniteness; 2) the article of definiteness.




The preposition is afunctional part of speech indicating a relation between two notional words.

It shows the relations between a noun or a pronoun and other words in the sentence.


Classification of Prepositions

Prepositions can be classified according to their morphological structure and meaning.

As to their morphological structure prepositions fall into the fol­lowing groups:

  1. simple -in, on, out, for, with, but, till, by,
  2. derivative -below, beside, along, across, during, concerning,
  3. compound inside, within, into, upon, throughout, along­side, without,
  4. composite (or phrasal) instead of, by means of in ac­cordance Math, with reference to, in view of, in front of,

According to the grammatical meaning prepositions may be di­vided mto:

1) prepositions of place and direction, such as (a) in. (b) on, (c) below, (d) under, (e) between, (f) to, (g) into, (h) towards, (i) along, (j) across, (k) behind, etc.


  1. All my pens and pencils are in the box.
  2. He owns the house on the corner.
  3. He signed his name below mine.
  4. The girl put the basket under the table.
  5. Toronto lies between Montreal and Vancouver.
  6. He pointed to the valley below them.
  7. Why don’t you go into New York to the best specialist?
  8. The manager expects to receive the goods towards the end of May
  9. The boys ran along the road.
  10. We had a walk across the river.
  11. The little girl hid behind her mother.

2) prepositions of time, such as (a) after, (b) before, (c) since,

  1. at, (e) in, (f) till, (g) until,


  • The family returned home after
  • We shall have a walk before
  • She has been working since seven o ‘clock this morning.
  • The teacher left the room at the end of the lesson.
  • Columbus crossed the Atlantic in
  • I shall stay here till
  • We didn i sleep until
  1. prepositions of abstract relations, such as (a) by, (b) with, (c) be­cause of (d) with a view to, (e) in accordance with, (f) in spite of


  • Ann was bidden by her eldest sisters to hold her tongue.
  • The floor is covered with a carpet.
  • We came late because of the rain.
  • The delegation arrived in London with a view to concluding a new agreement.
  • He didn ’(act in accordance with our destructions.
  • In spite of the bad weather they continued their way.


Note: The preposition with is used when we wish lo show the means or the instrument with which the action is done, but the preposition by denotes the doer of the. action.  

Compare: The man shot the bird with a gun.     The bird was shot by the man.

Pay attention to the following combinations: by (electric) light, by steam, by post, by telephone, by one’s watch, etc.

Here the students tend to use the preposition with instead of by under the influence of the mother tongue.


I sent the letter by post.

The information was given by telephone.

Prepositions like in, at, on, by, for, etc., which are used with all kinds of nouns are general prepositions. Here the meanings of the prepo­sitional construction do not depend on the preposition, but on the noun.


Most of my friends live in Baku (place).

They will be returning from the expedition in November (time)

We studied the report in detail (abstract relation)


 The party will be held at the Governor’s Club next Sunday (place)

He came at the appointed hour (time)

We are at war with Armenia (abstract relation)


My grandpa’s picture is hanging on the wall (place)

The meeting will take place on Tuesday (time)

What is your opinion on this subject? (abstract relation)


The house stood by the river (place)

The steamer was discharged by three o ‘clock (time)

She knows a lot of poems by heart (abstract relations)


The delegation left for London yesterday (place)

I have known him for three years already (time)

He has a talent for putting people at ease (abstract relation)


There are some other prepositions which may be called special. They are used chiefly with nouns of certain meaning, such as time, place, and abstract relations. Here are some special prepositions:

1) of time – (a) before, (b) after, (c) during, (d) since, (e) till, (f) untiL


  1. a) Always read the papers before
  2. b) She was very tired after
  3. c) He was killed in action during the battle.
  4. d) There have been many changes since the war.
  5. It rained till nearly midnight.
  6. I ‘ll be there until IOo ’clock.

2) of place – (a) across, (b) along,, (c) among, (d) behind, (e) below, (f) beside, (g) in front of, etc.


  1. They want to build a new bridge across the river.
  2. It is dangerous to walk along the highway after dark.
  3. We were among the crowd that gathered there.
  4. The garage is behind the house.
  5. The lake is almost 900feet below sea level.
  6. We found a picnic area down beside the lake

(g) There is a fountain in front of the hotel.

3) of abstract relations (a) because of (b) in view of (c) owing to, (d) with a view to, (e) in spite of, etc.


  1. Many families break up because of a lack of money.
  2. In view of the weather, the event will be held outdoors.
  3. / could not come owing to another engagement.
  4. She is painting the house with a view to selling it.
  5. Many people are cheerful in spite of their problems.


The Place of Prepositions

Normally a preposition stands between two words to express the relation between them. However, there are cases when the preposition may be separated from the word it refers to and take the (a) initial, (b) middle or (c) final position in the sentence.


  1. To whom shall I send this?
  2. The man 1 told you about is my relative.
  3. What are you talking about?


Homonymy of Prepositions

Many prepositions are homonymous with (a) adverbs such as below; down, before, since, after, near, etc., (b) conjunctions such as since, before, after, till, etc., (c) participles such as regarding, concerning, following, in­cluding, etc. In cases like that the homonymous word must be distinguished according to its meaning, syntactical function and position in the sentence.

Please don’t write below this line (preposition)

They live on the floor below (adverb)


The stone rolled down the hill (preposition)

I feel a hit down today (adverb)


Leave your keys at reception before departure (preposition)

I think we have met before (adverb)


She has been off work since Tuesday (preposition)

He left home two weeks ago and we haven’t heard from him since (adverb)


We shall leave after lunch (preposition)

And they all lived happily ever after (adverb)


The house is near the river (preposition)

The exams are drawing near (adverb)


We have lived here since 1994 (preposition)

How long is it since we last went to the theatre? (conjunction)


My friends arrived before me (preposition)

Did she leave a message before she left? (conjunction)


After an hour l went home (preposition)

/ shall call you after I hcn’e spoken to them (conjunction)


She worked till eight (preposition)

She waited till I came (conjunction)


Regarding these things I have nothing to say ‘ (preposition)

He was regarding the landscape (participle)


All details concerning money would he appreciated (preposition)

Is it concerning you so deeply ? (participle)


Following the dinner there will be a dance ‘ (preposition)

Are you following us? (participle)


The news delighted everyone including me (preposition)

We are including your name in the list (participle)


Some prepositions such as in, on, up, by, off, over, etc. are homonymous with postpositions. The difference between them is as follows:

  1. a preposition is usually unstressed, while a postposition usually bears the stress;

Compare:        in the room – give in

                          on the wall – put on

  1. a preposition denotes the relation between nouns and pronouns, while a postposition is part of a composite verb.

Compare: for John, for him

                  search for, look for

  1. a preposition does not affect the lexical meaning of the verb, while a postposition often changes the primary lexical meaning of the verb.

Compare: She took John up the hill (preposition).

                 He was brought up by his aunt (postposition).




The Conjunction is afunctional part of speech indicating the con­nection between two notional words, phrases, clauses, or sentences.

Conjunctions can be classified according to their morphological structure, to their meaning and function.


Classification of Conjunctions according to Their Morphological Structure

According to their morphological structure English conjimctions fall into the following types:

  1. a) simple – and, or, but, till, after, that, if, when, where,
  2. b) derivative until, unless, before, once, because, supposing, provided,
  3. c) compound – whereas, wherever, however, although, neverthe­less,
  4. d) composite – as well as, in case, for fear, on the ground that, as long as,

Here also belong some conjunctions which form correlative pairs, though the first element is not a conjunction. Correlative conjunctions usually come in pairs and join like elements. 1’hey are placed directly before the words representing the two like elements such as both… and, not only… but also, either… or, neither… nor, whether… or.


Classification of Conjunctions according to Their Meaning and Function

According to their meaning and function conjunctions are divided into two main subclasses: coordinating and subordinating conjunctions

Coordinating conjunctions join coordinate (a) clauses in a com­pound sentence or (b) homogeneous parts in a simple sentence or (c) homogeneous clauses in a complex sentence.


  1. You may go, but don’t be late for dinner.
  2. Yesterday I received a letter and a telegram.
  3. He said that the meat wav excellent and the wine was superb.


There are four kinds of coordinating conjunctions:

1) copulative or additive conjunctions, such as (a) and, (b) nor, (c) as well as, (d) both… and, (e) neither.,, nor, (f) not only… but (also). They serve to connect words or word groups and express addition of their meanings:



  1. They had been only a few hours in the colony and twice dur­ing that time she had become furiously angry.
  2. The officer didn 1 belie\>e me, nor did the girls when he came back
  3. Nancy as well as her family supports the new proposal.
  4. His whole face wav colourless rock; his eye was both spark and flint
  5. Neither the house nor the doors have to be painted.
  6. Not only was White Fang adaptable by nature, but he had traveled much. (London).


2) disjunctive, alternative or separative conjunctions, such as

(a) or, (b) either… or, (c) otherwise. They denote a choice between two alternatives.


  1. And now I mustn’t talk any more, or l shall have to sit up with this night.
  2. You ‘ll either sail this boat correctly, or you ’ll never go out with me again.
  3. Go at once, otherwise you will miss the train.


3) adversative or contrasting conjunctions, such as

(a) but, (b)while, (c) whereas, (d) however, (e)yet, (j) nevertheless.

They de­note contrast or contradiction between two statements.


  • She seemed to he asking a very serious question, hut she couldn’t put that question into words.
  • While I don’t like the job I ‘ll do it.
  • He felt like a gap among it all, whereas the captain was prouder, overriding.
  • He will not oppose my design, however I cannot approve of it.
  • She is always very polite to me and yet I don ’/ like her.
  • He finds life difficult, nevertheless he does not give up hope.


4) Causative-consecutive, final or illative conjunctions: (a) for, (b) so, (c) hence, (d) thus, (e) therefore. They denote reason, cause or result:


  1. There would be plenty of time for this, for he was not in a position to marry.
  2. It was Saturday, so they were home from school early.
  3. He is a good friend, hence I was not embarrassed to ask him for help.
  4. He traveled as quickly as possible, thus he reached Baku the next day.
  5. e) They lost the bet, therefore they must pay.

Note: The conjunction while is not always coordinating. It may he a subordi­nating conjunction introducing adverbial clauses of time; if it is possible to substitute while for the conjunction when, it is subordinating; when it can be replaced by the conjunction hut, it is coordinating.


Keep an eye on the child while l am away . = when 1 am away.

I agree with most of your arguments, while I can t accept all of them . = but / can i accept all of them.

Subordinating conjunctions generally join (a) a subordinate clause to a principal clause or (b) adverbial modifiers to the predicate in a sim­ple sentence.


  1. a) I am always asking myself whether I am doing the right thing.
  2. b) You mean you have failed because of me?

Subordinating conjunctions are positionally less fixed titan coor­dinating conjunctions and may be placed either at the beginning or in the middle of the sentence; thus they need not necessarily be between the elements they join.

There is a small group of subordinating conjunctions, such as whether, that, //introducing (a) the subject, (b) the predicative, (c) the object clauses


  1. a) Whether we need it is a different matter.
  2. b) The assumption is that things will improve
  3. c) Jude was asked if he could suggest any guest in addition

to those named by John.

They are very vague in meaning, and may therefore be used to join clauses of different syntactic value. Other conjunctions retain their lex­ical meaning.

Subordinating conjunctions introducing adverbial clauses are con­junctions of:

1) time – (a) as, (b) as soon as, (c) when, (d) whenever, (e) while, (f) till (until), (g) since, (h) before, (i) after, (j) as long as, etc.


  1. As they stood up. she clapped him on the shoulder.
  2. Is soon as you get rid of him. you had belter go and lie down a bit.
  3. Everybody was talking about me when I came into the room.
  4. Whenever money was due to her, she lingered.
  5. While he was sitting biting his nails l was working out a plan to get us home.
  6. They didn i marry until he was forty.
  7. It is some time since / saw such acting.
  8. Call me before you go out.
  9. 1 took off my coat after I walked into the room.
  10. / wouldn’t ha\!e minded what he did as long as 1 knew nothing about it.

2) place – (a) where, (b) wherever, (c) whence. –           , , /


  1. He at once saw Fleur where he had left her
  2. Ulterever you are, do your duty.
  3. Go back whence you came from.

3) cause – (a) as, (b) because, (c) since, (d) seeing that, (e) so… that, (f) considering, (g) lest, etc.


  1. As Ann was the eldest, she looked after the others.
  2. They kill me because they are afraid of me ^
  3. His work was of vital importance to him, since all his life was’ devoted to it.
  4. Seeing that he has been ill all week, he is unlikely to come.
  5. She was sitting behind me so that / didn’t see her face
  6. Considering he has only just started, he knows quite a lot about it.
  7. She was afraid lest she had revealed too much.

4) condition – (a) if, (b) unless, (c) in case, (d) provided, (e) sup­posing (that), (f) on condition (that), etc.


  1. If I were you, I shouldn’t keep a dog in the house.
  2. He s ruined unless he can get a million to pay off his debts.
  3. He will come back early in case he has finished his work.
  4. And you can do what you please, provided you do it neatly and don’t make a row over it.
  5. He is ineligible in every way, and suppose he should come to love you?
  6. She said she would help with the costumes on condition that she would get ten free tickets to the play.

5) purpose – (a) that, (b) so that, (c) in order that, (d) for fear that, (e) so, (f) lest.


  1. The parents of these children went hungry that their chil­dren might eat well.
  2. They climbed higher so that they might get a better view.
  3. I tell you all this in order that you may understand me per*- fectly.
  4. He no longer worried for fear that the sharp, cutting edges should slip and spoil his work.
  5. Let us take care of our crops so we will have food until next year
  6. They evacuated the building lest the walls should collapse.

6) result – (a) that, (b) so that.


  1. a) I was having such a nice time that I didn’t want to leave.
  2. b) It was so cold that we had to stop the game.

7) manner and comparison – (a) as, (b) as… as, (c) not so… as, than, (e) as if, (f) as though.


  1. She cooks the lamb exactly as my mother did.
  2. His wife worked as hard as he did.
  3. The bed was not so comfortable as his own.
  4. She plays tennis better than you do.
  5. He treats me as if I were a stranger.
  6. Mike acted as though nothing had happened.

8) concession – (a) though, (b) although, (c) as, (d) even if, (e) even though.

  1. a) Though he couldn’t have said why, it made him feel uneasy.
  2. b) Although she was tired, she went to work.
  3. c) Dark as it was getting, I couldn’t still see these changes.
  4. d) Even if I were you, I shouldn’t do it like that.
  5. e) Even though I didnt understand a word, I kept smiling.

As it is seen from the above examples, some subordinating conjunc­tions are used to introduce different subordinate clauses. For instance, the conjunction that may introduce (a) the subject, (b) predicative clauses, (c) the object, (d) adverbial clause of purpose and (e) result


  1. a) It is evident that he did not understand.
  2. b) The trouble is that it is too late now.
  3. c) I knew that something had happened.
  4. d) He drew the blanket over his head that he might not hear.
  5. e) It was so hot that nobody wanted to do anything.

The conjunction as may be found in adverbial clauses of (a) cause, (b) time, (c) manner or comparison and (d) concession.


  1. a) As she was in a hurry, she had to take a taxi.
  2. b) As I was coming here, I lost my key.
  3. c) She did exactly as I told her.
  4. d) Young as he is, he has already gained a good reputation.

Some subordinating conjunctions may also be used in simple sen­tences, such as (a) if, (b) as if, (c) though, (d) as though, (e) when, etc. They join adverbial modifiers to the predicate of the sentence.


  1. If questioned, I shall say everything.
  2. She looked as if frightened.
  3. Though alone, he was not lost.
  4. She laughed as though at my confusion.
  5. When asked, I’ll tell them everything.

Some conjunctions are homonymous with adverbs, prepositions, pronouns, and particles. See the following examples:

We shall go home after the sun sets, (conjunction)

Let s discuss the matter after, (adverb)

Run after him and catch him. (preposition)


He was strolling about the beach before / was up. (conjunction)

/ had often heard the song before, (adverb)

We sat before a little house, (preposition)


She has held two jobs since she graduated. (conjunction)

He has since become rich, (adverb)

They seem to have changed since then, (preposition)


He said that he was ill. (conjunction)

That book is mine, (demonstrative pronoun)

The photo that is on the table is my father’s (relative pronoun)


Rain had been falling, but now it had stopped. (conjunction)

He works every day but Sunday, (preposition)

I know but little of him. (particle)




The particle is a functional part of speech which either emphasizes or limits the meaning of another (a) word or (b) phrase or (c) clause.

Particles may join one part of the sentence to another. They have neither independent lexical meaning nor independent syntactical func­tion in the sentence.

Particles may be connected with any notional part of speech in the sentence. They serve only to emphasize, restrict or make negative the meaning of (a) separate words, (b) groups of words or even (c) the whole phrases.


  1. Isn‘t that just beautiful?
  2. My son lives just round the corner.
  3. I said just what I thought.

As to their structure English particles may be:

  1. simple: just, still, yet, even, else;
  2. derivative: merely, simply, alone;
  3. compound:


Classification of Particles according to Their Meaning

According to their meaning English particles fall under the fol­lowing groups:

1) Limiting particles: (a) only, (b) just, (c) hut, (d) alone, (e) merely, (f) solely, (g) barely.

They single out the word or phrase they refer to, or limit the idea expressed by them.


  1. I only wanted to ask you the time.
  2. She decided to learn Japanese just for fun.
  3. I don i think we ’ll manage it. Still we can but try.
  4. Time alone will show who was right.
  5. It is not merely a job, but a way of life.
  6. She was motivated solely by self-interest.
  7. They arrived barely a minute later.

2)  Intensifying particles: (a) simply, (b) just, (c) only, (d) yet, te, (f) even, (g) still, (h) exactly, (i) right.

These particles emphasize the meaning of the word they refer to. Examples:

  1. You simply must see the play!
  2. Just listen to what I am saying, will you?
  3. If only she were here, I should speak to her.
  4. We had yet another discussion the day before yesterday.
  5. It was quite a journey, you know.
  6. She liked him even when she was quarreling with him.
  7. The next day was still warmer.
  8. I’ve said exactly what I mean.
  9. The bus came right on time.

The particles just and only are polysemantic. They may be both limiting and intensifying. As a limiting particle only may be used with any part of speech and stand in different positions in the sentence.

Pay attention to the position and meaning of only in the following sentences.

Only Mary passed in French = no one else passed

Mary only passed in French = passed but did not get honours

Mary passed in French only = passed in no other subject

As an intensifying particle only is generally used in the Subjunc­tive Mood with the conjunction if and refers to the whole sentence, as in the following sentences:

If only he were here now! If only I had known you were in diffi­culty, I should have helped you.

As a limiting particle just is usually used before numerals and other parts of speech having a numerical meaning, as in the following examples:


The man gave the hoy just Jive pounds Her Jam) smile had deep ened just a little.

Just as an intensifying particle refers to the predicate or the pred­icative and is often used in imperative sentences, as in the following examples:

Just listen to me! We were just about to start our journey.

3) Connecting particles: too, also, as well, either

The particles (a) too, (b)also, (c) as well are used in affirmative and interrogative sentences, but (d) either is used in negative sentences.


  1. You know Africa too, don’t you? ‘
  2. I shall also try to be there at ten.
  3. Please, take this one as well.
  4. I don t like him either

4) Negative particles (a) no, (b) not, (c) never make negative the meaning of the sentence.


  1. They went no further than the station
  2. I was not present there myself.
  3. I never knew that you had a twin sister.

The particle never is translated into Azerbaijani as heç, heç də, bir dəfə də

He never looked back, he never hesitated.

As an adverb never is used in sentences with perfect lenses and is translated into Azerbaijani heç vaxt, heç zaman.


I have never been to London.

The negative particle no differs from the pronoun no.

If the word no stands before adjectives and adverbs, it is a particle and is translated into Azerbaijani as: heq, heg da, asla, qatiyyan.

He is no better today – 0 bu gun heq dayax§i deyil.

But the pronoun no is used before nouns and is treanslated into azerbaijani as heg hir

I have no German boots at homeEvdd heg bir alman dili kitabim yoxdur.

5) The additive particle else. It combines only with indefinite, in­terrogative and negative pronouns and interrogative adverbs. This par­ticle shows that it refers to the word which denotes something additional to what has already been mentioned.


What else do 1 need to do? Who else was there?

Where else could they live in such comfort?


Homonymy of Particles with Different Parts of Speach

Almost all particles are homonymous with other parts of speech. Only very few particles (else, merely, barely, solely) are not homony­mous with other words. But most of them are identical in form with: 1)  adverbs (exactly, simply, too, never, still, just, yet, right), 2)  adjec­tives (even, right, just, alone, only, still), 3) pronouns (all, either), 4) noun (but), verb 5) (still), 6)  interjection (never), 7) conjunction (but), 8) preposition (but), 9) article (the), etc.

1) particle – adverb:

 I simply do not understand you (particle)

He did it quite simply (adverb).


He always said exactly what he thought (particle)

She knew exactly what she thought about the others in the office (adverb).


She is lazy, too (particle).

She is too lazy (adverb).


He has just left the room (adverb).

You are just the person I need (particle).


2) particle – adjective:

 I have only two letters to send (particle).

She is the only child in the family (adjective)


They are just about to lea\>e (particle)

He is a just man (adjective)


I can’t even boil an egg (particle)

I couldn’t remember those even numbers on the wall (adjective)


You are coming right out into life, facing it all (particle)

He is right (adjective)


3) particle pronoun:

I don i advise you to go close to this cage, either(particle)

Give me a pen or a pencil. Either will do (pronoun)


He is but 9 years old (particle).

There is no one but heard it (pronoun)


In the last sentence but is used in the function of the relative pro­noun who.

4) particle – noun:

She is but a child (particle).

Your buts make me tired (noun)


5) particle – verb:

These days we’ve been working with still greater efficiency (particle)

She could not still the child (verb)


6) particle – interjection:

He answered never a word (particle).

He ate the whole lambNever! (interjection)


As an interjection never is translated into Azerbaijani as Nə! Yox bir! Yox e! Ola bilməz!!

7) particle – conjunction:

I saw her hut a moment (particle).

I looked at her but she paid no attention to me (conjunction)

8) particle – preposition:

He told me but one letter of the word (particle)

The library is open every day but Monday (preposition).

9) particle – article.

The intensifying particle the is used before adjectives and adverbs the comparative degree and is translated into Azerbaijani as no

Qədər …, o qədər (də)

The nearer the sea, the fresher the air. (particle)

The film was wry interesting (article)


The Place of Particles in the Sentence

In modern English particles are, as a rule, placed before or after the word to which they apply.

The particle only is placed next to the word to which it applies Examples:

Only you could do a thing like that.

He had only six apples (not more than six).

He only lent the car (He didn’t give it).

He lent the car to me only (not to anyone else).

Too is placed either directly after (a) the word which it serves to emphasize or (b) at the end of the sentence.


  1. I, too, should like to join in your excursion.
  2. I should like to see her

Note: In an informal style, too is often used after personal pronouns in the objective case in short answers.

“I’ve got an ideal” Me. too (in more formal English So have III have too).

Also is generally placed before (a) a simple verb-form after the auxiliary verbs, in case of any analytical form, (b) after the first aux­iliary, sometimes (c) at the end of the sentence.


  1. 1 cleaned the house and also cooked the diner.
  2. We were falling very tired. We were also hungry. This house was also built a year ago.
  3. When he looked back, the woman had vanished also.

Also usually stands before the modal expression have to.


We also have to wait a long time for the bus.

Note: However, also most often refers to the part of the sentence that comes after the subject.

So: “John also plays the guitar” means “John plays the guitar as well as other things”

The particle just precedes the word it qualifies.


1 ‘ll buy just one. / had just enough money.

Just can also be placed immediately before the verb:


/ ‘ll just buy one. 1 just had enough money.

But sometimes this change of order would change the meaning as it is in the following sentences.


Just sign here means; This is all you have to do Sign just here means: Sign in this particular spot.

Like most particles, not can be used with different parts of speech or clauses such as not he, not the student, not beautiful, not forty, not yesterday, not to see, not seeing, not when he comes.


You may come any time, but not when I am busy.

Not wishing to disturb her, he tip-toed to his room.

May 1 ask you not to cry at me?

The particle not is placed after (a) auxiliary and modal verbs and in other cases (b) before the words or constructions to which it applies.


(a) 1 am not tired. You must not start before ten.

(a) I don V think so. At last she was silent, not knowing what to answer.

Note: If there are several auxiliary verbs in the sentence the particle not stands after the first one, such as:

I shall not have written the letter by that time tomorrow.


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